Categories: Tussna

Tarifit d yemxumbal n tgumi-ines

Tura-t: Miluda Lḥenkari

Adaf (introduction)

Inna Miquel León Portilla deg usefru-ines s Nahuatl:

Melmi ij n tutlayt tettmetta
Aṭṭas ttwaḥsaben mmuten
Yin neḍḍen ɛlayen ad mmten
Tisitin ad rrẓent, ad mterracent
Timijjawin ad sseɣdent i lebda
Aydud ittemdedja

A mux yettwala David Crystal (2001.p.32) mkul tnayen n simanat tettmetta ij n tutlayt, 96% n yewdan ssawalen 4% n tutlayin i yellan di ddunit, ɛawed di 35 sna i dd-igguren ad mtent 3000 n tutlayin.[1]. Maci bɛid awal-nneɣ ad yili zi 3000-a mala ur nbedd x iḍaren-nneɣ, mala ur nesmun amnus,ḥuma a nessexdem iles-nneɣ, ḥuma a das-dd- nerr merra iwardan( les fonctions)-ines.

Mala nessekk tutlayt tarifit i weḍbib, a tt-naf teɛḍar, tuḍen… ur telli di ci!. Wa ɣer-s bu tirekkaz mixef ɣa tsenned, maci am teɛrabt, taniti tsenned x ddewla, tsenned x ddin… Tarifit, ɣer-s tarwa-ines safi. Mala ur tt-nesgenfi, deɣya ad temmet.

Necnin yinni i yekkin sekwila, d nnubet-nneɣ a negg afus deg ufus ḥuma a nessenjem iles-nneɣ zi lefna. Tutlayt-nneɣ texḍel ɣer yij n wemkan, ya ad tugur ar zdat, ya ad tekk x ugeddim.

Awal-nneɣ d nneṭta d tawengimt n weydud-nneɣ, d netta d tgumi-nneɣ, awal-nneɣ d necnin, awal-nneɣ d amezruy-nneɣ.


Iles-nneɣ, temmejra-yas am yij ukamiyyu ittali di tsawent, maca ur ijebbed ci mliḥ, mala iḍleq zi frinu, ad ihwa di teksart. Lefran n yiles-nneɣ d lejdud-nneɣ d lwalidin-nneɣ, d yinni ɛad i yeṭṭfen deg wawal arifi, inni i yessawalen tarifit waha (monolingue).

Ḥuma a nezmer a nesgenfa tutlayt-nneɣ, yettxessa a nessen tasusyusnilest (sociolinguistique), ɛawed a deg-neɣ yili wul ḥuma a nedder s wawal-nneɣ.

I. Ṭifur n twiza i tudert n tutlayt tarifit[2]

Ḥuma ad zemmareɣ ad ssiwḍeɣ min xseɣ ad iniɣ, ggiɣ-t s arcem-a:

II. Almad n wawal

Almad n tutlayt amux i tt-yettwala José María Sánchez Carrión “Txepetx”:

Tussna n yij n tutlayt deg-s tlata n tmeslayin:

  • Ul (Motivation)
  • Tussna (Connaissance)
  • Asexdem (Usages)

Amaknaw tlata n lkisan n waman, wa yetferraɣ di wa. Ɣer-neɣ lkas n usexdem n tutlayt, lkas n tussna-ines, d lkas n wul niɣ n uḥeffez . Ɛawed ɣer-neɣ tnayen n yebriden: A (almad di taddart niɣ deg wazzerg niɣ di ssuq…) d B (almad di sekwila, di tesdawit niɣ di tmesmunt,….)

Abrid n A: yeggur-dd zi usexdem afiṭri, ittekk-dd x tussna tafiṭrit ar uḥeffez afiṭri.

Abrid n B: ibedda-dd zi uḥeffez ar tussna ar usexdem n tutlayt.

Zeg (source): Cit. En Garabide: “La experiencia vasca: Claves para la recuperación lingüística e identitaria”

Ḥuma ijj n tutlayt ad teqqim tedder, ixessa ad tettwasexdem di qqaɛ igran n tudert n waydud, mala ammen, tutlayt tettkemmal abrid-ines agaman (naturel) d uḍelsan (culturel), wa yinni i tt-yessawalen, isemma-ten “Txepetx” imsawalen ikemlen. ( Locuteur complet)

III. Udmawen n tsusyusnilest

Udem A: almad niɣ anqal n wawal, ittili s yij n cckel d afiṭri, gi taddart ag twacunt, niɣ di berra waha.

Udem B: almad ittili s teɣri di sekwilat.

Udem AB: tutlayt tettwalmad di taddart d sekwila, amya tettkemmal abrid-ines: zeg ufiṭri ar tussna d tira.

Udem BA: tutlayt tettkemmal abrid-ines , maca tbedda s welmad n tira d tussna, ruxen d almad n wawal.

Udem Ø: tutlayin ur nessiwil ci, niɣ ur qqiment ci.

Udem niɣ amkan mani ixess ad tili tutlayt, ḥuma ad tedder wa ad tugur ar zdat d AB.

Mala nxes a negg ij n uqelleb x umkan n tutlayt tarifit jer n tutlayen nneḍni, am ddarija d teɛrabt, ḥuma a nzer mani tella d mux teggur. Nezmer a naf manaya deg umedya (exemple) i dd-yegguren (amsawal d ixef-inu):

MiloudaTarifitDarijaTaɛrabt
Zi 0 ar 7 sninAØØ
Zi 08 ar16 snaAABA
Zi 17 ar 45 snaAABA
Ruxa +50 snaAB (-)ABA

Ḥetta wami kemmleɣ 50 sna, 3ad i bdiɣ ad lemdeɣ ad ariɣ tutlayt-inu tayemmat. Yenḍu deg-i wemnus n yiles-inu. Bdiɣ s welmad n tfinaɣ, maca ufiɣ-tt ur dayi-tettsellik ci, ggamiɣ-tt, ufiɣ-tt ur telli ci ɛamaliyya, ɛawed mux ẓriɣ ayetma-tneɣ iqbayliyen uguren aṭṭas ar zdat di tgumi n tutlayt-nsen s usexdem n tlatinit, wa nniɣ-as weḥdi weḥdi: maɣa ur lemmdeɣ zi ttejriba-nsen.

Drus n irifiyen d trifiyin i ikemmlen abrid n ulmad n trifit (AB).

D ij n tutlayt tayya iwdan-ines ur ttkemmilen ci abrid zi A ar AB ḥuma a ɣer-s tili ij n tudert d tazegrart, maca tutlayt itteḥkamen tarwa-ines, ttkemmalen adrid n ulmad n wawal s yij n cckel ṭabiɛi.

IV. Abrid n usider n tutlayin n yellan x ugeddim n lefna.

Jon Sarasua yercem asider n tutlayin yellan di lxaṭar, am yij n tsejjart , iẓuran-ines d ina:

  1. Asali di ccan d ccenɛet i yiles-nneɣ,
  2. A nxes a nili s wawal-nneɣ, a nedder s yiles-nneɣ
  3. A nettu merra imxumbal i din jer-aneɣ, wa a negg afus deg ufus.

Tiṣeḍwin n tsejjart

  1. Ugniw : asniles d umawal (Corpus,linguistique et lexique )
  2. Asegmi. Éducation
  3. Afares adelsan (Production culturelle)
  4. Midiya (Média)
  5. Aselmed n imeqqranen

( Alphabétisacion des adultes)

  1. Tamessugurt tagdudant (Administration publique)
  2. Tadamsa (Économie )
  3. Asmutti n lwacun (Transmission familiale)
  4. Asmass anamun (activation social)
  5. internet

Ḥuma ijj n tutlayt a tenjem zi lxaṭar, ixes-as ad tili deg mkul iger, di mkul taseṭṭa, wa mkul taseṭṭa ixess-as ad tgem ḥuma a dd-lulent tseḍwin nneḍni, ɛawed tisedwin-ines lesqent ta ar ta, ta tettsennad x ta. Ur nettettu ci iẓuran d inni i das-itticcen jjhed i tsejjart-a. amya a nerbeḥ imukan (espaces) I yelis-nneɣ.

V. Talefsa deg waman yeddurden[3]


Leḥkayet n trifit ag taɛrabt d lmexzen am leḥkayet n tlefsa deg waman yeddurdan, ur tesḥissi s min ɣer-s i dd-yegguren ar ɣa yeɛda lḥal, ɛad i ɣa tini , manis i kkin a xalti?.

Mala negga talefsa deg waman yenwan, ad tenḍu deɣya, ad terwel. Maca mala negga-tt deg waman ddurdan, ad teqqim dinni ur tettenhezzi. I mala nzenned lɛafit tefsus , aman-nni ad ttiḥman cwicwit , talefsa ur tettneṭṭu ci, ad teqqim dinni ḥetta ad temmet.

Leḥkayet-a temmal-aneɣ tnayen n tmeslayin: tamezwarut, nezmar a nẓer, wa a nefḥem i ci n umxumbel mala neẓra-t zi cwit n laggwaj, wis tnayen, ci n imxumbal ur ttbinin zeg wemsafeḍ

Amsafaḍ

Awalen( les concepts) i sxedmeɣ deg uḍris-a (texte) ksiɣ-ten-dd zi ttejriba n tuskert, muk das-ggin netnin wa xedmen merra ag wayawya, ttun merra imxumbal i ɣer-sen (imxumbal di ssiyasa, di tedyulujit, di ddin..) wa sɛanen karru n yelis-nsen. Bdan-tt temɣarin tibaskitin s uselmed n tuskert gi tudrin-nsent, di lgarajat, di iglisyat… ruxen ggin-tt Ikastolas, Ikastolas-a d sekwilat ssɣuran deg-sent qqaɛ lmawad s tuskert. Zi ssini ar yegren nneḍni.

Xelli ma ɣer-neɣ aṭṭas n tmeslayin nettemxaṭa deg-sent ag ibaskuten, maca nezmar a nelmed zi ttejriba-nsen.

Ssitimeɣ aḍris-a ad izenned cwit umhaweḍ jer-aneɣ. Wer nettettu aqa: necnin neḥdaj tutlayt-nneɣ, amux tutlayt-nneɣ teḥdaj-aneɣ.

Merra tutlayin sellḥent, ɣir ukan mxatant. Ci zeg-sent d lalla-s n taddart, ɣer-s ccan, ten nneḍni d tayya.

  1. https://www.leonhunter.com/por-que-mueren-las-lenguas/
  2. Equipo CRAC. Colectivo de educación para la participatión.
  3. https://www.pablotovar.com/la-rana-y-el-agua-hirviendo/
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