17 octobre , 2021

Neolithic…akuḍ i di nqelben yegduden x temɣart !

Tura-t: Tifraz gharmao

« Tamɣart tella ḥuma ad tili di taddart, tella ḥuma ad tessgem, ad teḥda lwacun-nnes, tamɣart ixessa ad teḍfar argaz d array-nnes…«

Matthew Verdolivo, UC Davis IET Academic Technology Services

Ammu ira xzren yewdan n umaḍal ɣer temɣart manimma, deg wattas n tussniwin n midden ttwaran‑tt d azgen n wamun maca amcan-nnes awarni i wargaz , uca ca n yegduden d ca n tɣermiwin (civilisations) ira waxxa ttwaran ccan-nnes s wadday i wargaz, ttuɣa ɣer-s cwayt n tesɣart, am Imaziɣan, Imisryyin, Mestopamia. Ca n yegduden‑nneɣni ttwalant axmi d macina i tarwa d usgem waha.

Iḍa-, tamɣart teggur s isuraf mɣren ḥuma ad taf tamcant-nnes, tetteffeɣ ad texdem, tetticc array‑nnes di marra yegran, tedwer temqudda aked wargaz deg waṭṭas n tmura. Di ca n tmura aqqa‑tt ɛad tettemkabar ad teksi tilelli‑nnes tkmel. Ittɣima useqsi ameqqran: manis i d‑yekka manaya? mammek i dd‑yebda useḥqar n tamɣart ?
Ma d ddin i dd-yiwyyen izerfan i ssehwan zi ccan-nnes? Ma d ca n tɣermiwin am « Igrekiyen » d « Imsermen » i yefsaren izerfan‑nsen d timura iḥewssen, uca idwer umadal ɛrayen ismun aray-nnes x-as? ma « Macca » ra d nettat ɣer‑s ca n tɣuni aked tmeslayt-a ?

Deg wakud-a i di nella, tussna i ɣa niwweḍ d trezzutin n tentrupulujit (Anthropology) Tussniwin tinamunin(social sciences ), imussnawen ttmerqan x ijjen array. Qqaren iwdan imezwura ira mquddan. Ttuɣa wer ɣer‑sen mayemmi i ɣa bḍan jer wargaz d temɣart. Maca yemsar ijjen ubddel di tudert‑nsen min yejjin ad beddlent aṭṭas n tmeslayin, zag‑sent « Macca », d furma mamek ssegguran tagrawt.

Paleolithic d Tamɣart deg wakud n taymart d tayrawt n Macca ( Hunter-gatherer Era)

DEA Picture Library/De Agostini/Getty Images

Axmi d tḥajit, d wakud rami iwdan lla ɛad wer da‑sen tewci tudert ad ssnen umi qqaren iklussay inamunen (social classes) niɣ ad ferzen di ccan n yewdan i ɣer‑sen yeqqnen, ira tmunen di tmesmunin d timzyanin, tteddren s drust n macca; min d- yemmaren d min d garrwen, ura d reḥwayj isexdamen ira udrusen, ssexdamen azru d ukeccud ḥuma ad qdan rhajet -nsen di tyemart niɣ heṭṭu n ixef‑nsen.

Tamɣart deg wakud-a ttuɣa-tt am wargaz, tettbeṭṭa lxedmet akid-s, tetteffeɣ tgarru lḥebb, lxuḍert, d ca n imukan ttuɣa-tt tyemmar lmal ameẓẓyan, tyemmar iselman. Asgem n iḥanjiren ttuɣa-t d ijjen tmeslayt ttemɛawanen dag‑s, tamesmunt amen tkmel, walli tayemmat weḥḥd-s. D aṭṭas n trezzutin ttwalant tamɣart nettat ira i ittfɣen trezzu aṭṭas x macca i yecnan i sseḥḥet n usegmi xmi ittili deg uɛeddis niɣ deg uṣuḍeḍ(1)

Ɣer uneggar, nzemmer ad nini qa tigrawin n yewdan deg wakud-a, tuɣa ddren s ttwiza jar‑asen, beṭṭan macca d wagla, mkul ijjen itteg ddur‑nnes ḥuma ad teqqim tagrawt‑nnsen tedder.

Neolithic… Akud I di nqelben igduden x temɣart !

Di rweqt-a , tawdanit ad taf ijjen tebridt‑nneɣni i mamek ɣa tedder. Isala Paleolithic i yellan d ijjen wakud yemɣer attas, ittadef‑dd awarn-as akuḍ n Neolithic ( Akud n weẓru n jjdid ). S tnayen ssexdmen dag‑sen iwdan aẓru ḥuma ad ggen leḥwayj-nsen n tyemmart d macca. Maca di Neolithic ad tebda taẓẓut, wer ttɣimin ca iwdan ad ɛaynen tamurt asen‑tewc macca, niɣ ad mmuttyen s wamunen rezzun x imukan i di tella tayemmart, suya ad bdan tteẓẓun igran d imeẓẓyanen, ad banent tudrin d ibilajen d imeẓẓyanen.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/

Beddu n teẓẓut 12,000 n isugassa zegami: ad beddlent aṭṭas n tmeslayin, ad idwel uterras irezzu a ɣer‑s tedwel tmurt, ad yessemɣer agla. Ad banent lexdayem‑nneɣni, ad bdan yewdan sxeddamen ayawya, ad idwel ddur n wargaz deg igran i yegg°jen. Tamɣart tetteg ccɣel n taddart tettḥetta iḥenjiren. Ḥuma aɣ-ac tili tmurt d wagla, ixess ad tegged ccan i yewdan ixecnen, izmmren ad rebḥen deg imenɣan akd igduden‑/tigrawin‑ nneɣni, niɣ inni izmmren ad ḥḍan tagrawt‑nsen. S uyenni igduden xerrsen deg usmɣer n tarrawt, mkul ma yemɣar lwacun, kurma ɣer‑s ẓẓhar a ɣer‑s yili agla yemɣer, ad iḥewwes igran mɣren, rexdenni manaya yedwel am inawayen (norms) d imaynuten x wakud n Paleolithic. Tamɣart ixess ad taru aṭṭas, ad tessgem iwdan gedren, ineymaren zemmren ad ffɣen deg imenɣan. Zi ssa ɣa tebda lxedmet n wargaz ɣer berra ɣer‑s ccan, akd lweqt, izerfan ad bdan ttneqlaben x temɣart cwayt cwayt, huma ad tedwel d tamɣart, ixess‑as ad tettwala tarwa d hettu n lwacun xir zi lexdyam‑nneɣni. Danita i d‑ɣa‑bdant tigrawin tteggent ddin‑nsent, tteqnent tudert n yewdan‑nsent s izerfan ɣer imiten (myths) mani yella argaz netta i yellan d ixef n wegdud, manaya marra ijj-d ijj n ḥajet qqaren-as asistim n tbabat ( Patriarchy )

Waxxa amezruy n yewdan yenneqleb amen yekmel deg wakud–a , s tegrawla n tafellaḥt, maca tamɣart tettwamneɛ zi tesɣart‑nes, tettwaṭṭef zeg ucrac deg wagla-ya am nettat am wargaz. Deg ijen trezzut n (Hansen et al -2012 ) teqqar: qa tegdudin i ɣa yella ijen umzruy yemɣer di tafellaḥt, ttwassnent s izerfan i yṭewren argaz netta xir zi tmɣart di lxedmet d upulitik.

 Alabama Department of Archives.

Rami i d‑bdant tɣermwin ad banent, deg wakud n nḥass ( bronze age), bdant tneddam meqqrent, Idwel usexdem n lmeɛden deg umkan n weẓru. Tamɣart teqqim tettirar ijjen ddur d ameẓẓyan deg imezruyen, nessen aṭṭas x min ggin irgazen, maca drus i daneɣ dd‑yewḍen x min ggint temɣarin, inni ittilin x ixef n ddulat am Irumaniyen “Romans” niɣ Imaziɣen d argazen, yudrus mara ca n temɣart yura-dd x-as umezruy tedwel d tagellidt, ad naff Igrikiyen wer das-wcin ra d tasɣart ad tessiwel di pulitik, niɣ ad temlek tamurt, ira ttwaran‑tet am ca n ḥajet, itticc‑itt baba‑s d tameẓẓyant, manaya ad t-naf zi senni ɣer jjwar n Igrikiyen arami ɣer‑neɣ di iwweḍ ixḍer akd ddin deg idlisen imasiḥyin d i yenni n imselmen .


mara texssm ad tɣarem ktar

1 oxfordre.com
2 www.econ.ku.dk/
3 webpage.pace.edu/
4 www.newscientist.com

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