Mamec ittegg iles i zi tessawaled ittejja later di tebridt n ufekkar nnec/m?

Ma tfekkred ca n twalat di min ixes ad yini iles ? Niɣ min ixes ad yini iles i marra iwdan ? Amessniles Noam Chomsky iqqar ila aṭṭas n midden ttwalan belli “iles yalleh d tabridt n wemsawaḍ jar iwdan, senni ffɣen-d aṭṭas n yelsawen i ɣa ixdmen ddegg-a n lxedmet n wemsawaḍ”, maca manaya d fayyu.

S tidett, nesxeddam iles bac a nemsawaḍ jar-aneɣ, manaya d ijjen lfaydet d tameqqrant i neccin, maca qa amsawaḍ waha maci d ayenni min isfarrazen yiles. Ilsawen, amec yeqqar Chomsky, “d tabridt i zi d-nemmal ixarrisen-nneɣ, nxelleq-iten-d ԑawed”. Ittsemma asexdem n ca n yiles (am Tmaziɣt) ittejja later di tebridt i zi nbenna ixarrisen-nneɣ, ddegg-a itaf tili-nnes di tilawt-nneɣ (notre réalité) nican.

Taselmadt n tesnilest di tesdawit n California Lera Boroditsky tettwala ila amsebḍi di tebridin n uxarres zi bnadem ɣer wenniḍen ittԑeqqab ɣer yiles i zi nessawal, tetterra taynit ila qa deg umaḍal-a ass-a ɣer-neɣ ca n 7000 n yelsawen, kul ijjen zzag-sen ittawi tabridt-nnes imsebḍan deg uxarres d mamec nettwala timeslayin.

Tettawi-d ijjen umknaw xenni teqqar ila azgen ameqqran n yelsawen i yeddren tteqqnen imniden (les orientations) n unhezzi ɣer arrimet n bnadem. Mala ca n ijjen isseqsa-cek x spiṭar i yudsen ad as-tinid : “a t-tafed x yeffus-nnec”. Cek s wawal-a texsed a tinid ila spiṭar aqqa-t x ufus afusi n bnadem-nni.

Maca qa din ilsawen-nniḍen, ameknaw iles n imezdaɣ imezwura deg Ustraliya, sscanen imniden di kulci, la d ameẓẓyan la d ameqqran, s rebԑa n yemniden ijyugrafiyen ittwassnen. Ca n ijjen zzag-sen izemmer ad yini: “xzar! qa din ijjen uqquԑ ittbuԑ x uḍar-nnec afusi”, s minzi agdud-a issawal ammu, xenni a tafed ula d iḥenjiren-nnsen ssnen mliḥ ibriden d imniden bla ma ad ggen ca n tzemmar, maca mala tesseqsid ḥedd cek x mani illa ẓelmeḍ-usammer xenni ixess-icek ca n tbusalt (boussole).

Waxxa manaya ittban-d axmi yegg°ej cwayt x tidett d tilawet, maca yallah a d-nawi ijjen tewriqt n trezzut d tasebḥant ixdem x-as Umarikani Keith Chen deg useggas n 2013 di tesdawit n Yale Tamrikant, issawal dag-s x mamec iles izemmer ad yejj later maci x tebridt n lmaԑica n yewdan waha maca ula deg ikunumi n tmura.

Deg umezwaru Chen ibeṭṭa jar tnayen n markat n yelsawen: ilsawen imezwura d inni n “yimal”, ittsemma d ilsawen ibeṭṭan ayt bab-nnsen deg wawal-nnsen jar “yiḍ-a” d “yimal”, qqaren “tiwecca, ad raḥeɣ ad ẓureɣ yemma”. Zeg yilsawen-a nettaf Tangelizt, Tagrikt, Taṭalyant d Trusit.

Marka tis tnayen d ilsawen i di wer yelli “yimal”, d yelsawen issawalen ayt bab-nnsen x yimal s umilan (au présent) am Talimant, Tafinlandit, Tacinwit; neqqar “ttzureɣ yemma, tiwecca”.

Ddegg-a n ubeṭṭu ameẓẓyan di mamec ttrakkaben tiwinas (les phrases) jar ijjen yiles d wenniḍen, ittejja later-nnes di tebridin n tudert jar midden d twacunin. Alaḥsab tɣuri-ya, iwdan isxinctaren ttmenyat aṭṭas aqqa-ten di tmura-nni i wer issiwilen  ca s “imal” kṭer zi tmura mani ssawalen ilsawen i di yella “imal”. Manaya nettwala-t ula deg ikunumi n tmura-ya.

Nettaf ila tiwacunin i yemserwasen di mamec ttԑicen di tmura-nni, ittakk°aḍ usxinctar-nnsent ar 30% mala ssawalent s ijjen yiles i di wer yelli bu “yimal”.

Yettwala Chen ila mala tessawaled x “yimal” lebda s umilan ataf xenni a tessned ila qa “yimal yella” am “yiḍ-a”. S uya iggur ad dag-s tfekkred kṭer zi bnadem-nni ibeṭṭan jar “umilan” d “yimal”. Ameggaru-ya, itteqsiḥ x-as ad ifekker deg “yimal” am “umilan”, s uya itteqsiḥ x-as ad ismeḥ di ca n leḥwayej deg “yiḍ-a” bac a tent-isxinctar i “yimal”, minzi ameggaru-ya wer yeḥḍir ca aṭṭas deg walli-nnes.

Tirezzutin n Chen wer beddent ca n ikunumi waha, maca iwweḍ ad yaf ijen tɣuni jar tnayen-a n wanawen n uxarres i d-itteffɣen zeg yiles aked tinamitin i yecnin.

Nettaf inni ig isxeddamen iles bla “yimal” tteggen arryaḍa kṭer zeg inni isxeddamen iles dag-s “yimal”. Minzi bac ad ittrinar, ittili iqqseḥ deg “yiḍ-a” ḥma ad yaf ijjen seḥḥet tecna deg “yimal”.

Mala neqqen mayen inna Chen ɣer tameslayt n ikunumi. A naf timura i zi ssawalen ayt bab-nnsen ilsawen wer sxeddimen bu “yimal”, d yina i yeggin tizemmar d timeqqranin deg yikunumi, s uya, deg yimal iggur ad inint awal-nnsent.

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s