29 novembre , 2021

Layzer: Aqesses n tfawt yeḥkem dduniyt.

Aqqa-t di 60 n iseggusa, 16 Mayyu 1960, tettwag tfawt n llayzer tamzwarut. Yercem beddu n ijjen wakud d amaynu, ass-a wer nzemmer ad nmeyyek x tatiknulujit-a. Bla zzag-s wer tettiri amprimunt. Ula d ikabliten n zzaj niɣ d lakiss (la caisse) di leswaq. Iger n sseḥḥet la d netta, Tinɛacin, tussna, d taṣennaɛt. Llayzer yedwel zeg iqedwaḥ wer xf nzemmer a naggʷej.
Maca mayemmi qaɛ tfawt‑a iqessen d leɛjeb anict uya?

DLR German Aerospace Center / CC BY 2.0

Adu qaɛ rirat s tfawt, llayzer d netta izemmren i kulci. Muḥal ma yella ca n iger mani wer nesxeddim llayzer. Min t‑ittejjan izemmer i kulci? Beɛda beɛda carken tfawt n llayzer d tenni n llamba deg ict: s tnayen d iṣeḍya n Elektrumagnet. Tisfay (remwaj) ttemxebbaḍent qeyyuɛi di tfawt n llamba, ɣir ad seggdent ad durent d llayzer.

Tfawt n tfukt niɣ n llamba ɣer‑s ijjen tuzzegart n tisfay tewseɛ. Maca tenni n llayzer tettili deg ijjen iger yeḥṣer. Aṭṭas n yekluṣa n llayzer ɣer‑sen ijjen lmujet waha (monochromatic). Tisfay n llayzer tzebzibent x ijjen lmizan. Tifawin‑nnes ttemcebbant deg ict d tenniḍen. ɛawd ict nniḍen: Iṣḍi n llayzerwer ittiliw ɣar lagʷajt, am tenni n llampa.

彭嘉傑 / CC BY 2.5

Tirucac n Ifutunen ‑ xaf‑s i yebna llayzer

Maca mamek i d-itwaxlaq llayzer? ttiknika yeffren awarn‑i llayzer yessiwel xaf‑s s ttiyurit Albert Einstein deg usegʷas n 1917. Deg ijjen umudil n waṭum, ttmuttuyen iliktrunen s ijjen jjehd n yinirji x uɛeqqa. Mintra ttagwjen abrid‑nsen mintra yettmarni inirji. Inirji-nni itejja‑ten reqqen, melmi reqqen, ttagwjen x ubrid‑nsen deg waṭum (i yunḍen i wɛeqqa). Melmi ɣa dewlen ɣar webrid‑nsen, dellqen i inirji-nnes dag‑sen d zzyada, Inirji‑ya tteffeɣ‑dd d ifutunen.

Ḥima ad ttmun tfawt ɣa yeggen llayzer, ixessa ca n ḥajet ɣa yessiɣen iliktrunen‑nni ca n ḥajet ten‑ɣa‑yejjen ad dewlen deg ict twarat marra. ad tedleq i yijen Tirucac n ifuṭunen. Senslet‑a n usiɣ d usixwi n inrji, qqaren‑as Stimulated Emission, senni i d-yekka isem n llayzer (Lasel: « Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation“)

Theodore Maiman: llayzer n lyaqut amzwar (Ruby laser)

Theodore Maiman entwickelte
Public Domain

Amezwar yessarsen tatiyurit n llayzer di tidet, d Afisyawi amirikan Theodore Maiman di 16 Mayyu 1960. Yessexdem aẓru n lyaqut, i ceɛɛeɛ s ijjen llamba. Azru‑ya yeggit deg ijjen uqadus, i ɣa d-terra ijjen tisit ɣa ijjen jjiht marra tfawt. Jjihet nniḍen yejja‑t terzem maca tedla. Amenni ataf ifutunen wer tteggen llayzer, ad dewlen.
Maiman iṣenneɛ llayzer amzwaru n lyaqut, Maca wer das-rrin ca taynit i min yegga amenni. Lami yura twafit-nnes deg ijjen jjurnal, wer das-qbilen min din yexdem. Ar mani yesqad i yijjen ujurnal nniḍen, xenni das-tt‑sseɛdun. melmi i d-yeffeɣ artikel-nni di jjurnal di Ɣuct, Dinni i d-terra lbal dduniyt tamassant belli qa yebda ijjen wakud d amaynu di tussna.

Asexdem zi twezwizt ar lḥajet ymeɣren.

Di lweqt‑a wer yeqqim bu lyaqut di llayzer, llayzer qaɛ xeddmen s idioden (Diode). Xaf‑sen i yebna aṭṭas zi min nedder wer t-nettɛic, minzi kessin la d ineɣmisen cnaw zi CD‑Player, Lakiss, niɣ ikabliten imaynuten n zzaj.

Metaveld BV / CC BY-SA 3.0

Di tussna, llayzer ineffeɛ i leḥsab ɣa lagʷaj, Ḥima ad ḍfren min itmuttuyen yemɣer, niɣ ad ḥḍan iɛeqqayen imeẓẓyanen yeṭṭawen. Di trezzut tamassant, wer nzemmer ad xaf‑s nekkes. Ula deg wṣenneɛ d lxedmet: Ittqessas uzzal, isnuqqub, itcurḍer. Minzi tisfay-nnes, iyya ad dag‑sent triglid, ad tsaqared llayzer i ɣa ynefɛen, i lxedmet i texsed.
Llayzer icuq la d ajenna: zzag‑sen i wezznen isatiliten lagʷajet x ijjen wenniḍen, niɣ sqadan DATA. ‎Amṣawaḍ n wanict (Quantum communication) zi tmurt akd usatilit yella zzag‑s. Deg unebdu 2017 yesqad-d ijjen usatilit d Acinwi 2 n llayzer ɣer tmurt.

ESO, Yuri Beletsky / CC BY 4.0

ɣer ɛawd:

Tazzla n tfawt : itran-nni nettwala deg ujenna wer qqimen

Majid Aqelɛi
Majid, Izran, Tudart tazgzawt, d Tussna...

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s