5 décembre , 2021

Ammu i tebda ddunit!

Nnumru n waḥit n tɣuriwin i yellan x beddu n Ddunit.


Zi mani bdan yewdan ad sxedmen alli‑nsen, xewwjen-ten sin (2) n iseqsan. Mayemmi nella? niɣ maynumi? d mamek tebda ddunit-a twalat tamezgarut?. Taycit-nneɣ s lweqt yeɛdan, tebna x wanict-nni i nedder waha.

Melmi netterra sinta ɣer deffar, min yemsaren ɛecra n iseggusa zeggami, niɣ 20, nzemmar a dd-nagem cwayt zi minxef ntteɛqar. Maca min nettettu yujar min neswingam, xelli ɛad d afruri i yetwattun aṭṭas.

NGC 6326, ein Planetarischer Nebel. Hubble Space Teleskop. Wikicommons,



13.750.000.000, Ammu i tebda ddunit! 14 milyar n isegg°usa qbel i wass‑a, minxef ɣa tɛeqled, niɣ min ɣa tafed? min ɣa tejjed?! Waxxa amenni, imussnawen, imerzzuten, ifilusufen, ra d ṭṭelba, ttemqetmarn zi mani yebda bnadem itteɛqar x yexf‑nnes yella, ad afen mamek tebda ddunit 14 milyar n iseggusa zeggami?!

Aṭṭas n imudilen i dd-ibanen zi lweqt yeɛdan ar ass‑a. Ass-a a nessiwel x cwayt zi tiẓra/Theories yettwassnen aṭṭas deg yigran n tussna.

Hesiodos, Platon, Tamasiḥit/Tameslemt

Zi qaɛ imexluqen i yellan, Iwdan zemmren ad ilin d nitni waha i ɣer llant tzemmar ad xarsen di tiwecca, ad farnen iḍennat. Walli zemmren waha, maca tteḥwajant. Ad yili d wa yejjin imezwura ad urzun x mamek tebda ddunit. Agriki Hesiodos zeg imezgura yessarsen tmuɣri-nnes di manaya.

Hesiodos yenna awal-nnes 800 n iseggusa qbel i Yeccu Lmasiḥ, yssiwel x mamek arrwina tzemmar ad taru ijjen tesfift n ddunit kulci dag‑s isettef.

Hesiod ‑ Wikipedia


400 n iseggusa awarn-as, Platon yeɣra ddunit am ijjen lebni n ixarrisen n tfelsaftt, axarres‑a isiɣi leqrun awarn‑as. Tmeslemt, teqqen ibedduten marra ɣer Wakuc.

Tamasiḥit di Lektub-nnes temsarwas akid‑s Tmeslemt aṭṭas di mamek tebda ddunit. Qqarent belli d Rebbi i ixelqen kulci di 7 niɣ 6 n wussan. Waxxa ttuɣa llan legnus nniḍen yeqqarn belli d iyakucen-nsen ixelqen ddunit, maca ddiyanat n ujenna, merra qqerent belli s ufus/awal n Rebbi.

Taglizt (Tamezgida n Irumiyen) aṭṭas n tzemmer i tegga ḥima ad tessusem tussna n ugama (Nature), ad xaf‑s tessili tanfust‑nnes nettat. Ɛawd din mani nettaf ṭṭelba d imselmen tteggen tizemmer ad qqnen min yurin di lqura’an aked min ttafen imussnawen. Manayenni lebda nettaf tekken‑as‑dd ssa d ssiha waha.

Tussna d ddin munen – Wikipedia

Galileo Galilei

Ict tiẓri teqqar, belli Rebbi wer yexliq ddunit waha, maca ra d akud (lweqt), Rebbi wer yelli amknaw bnadm, Rebbi wer xaf‑s bu lweqt, wer ɣer‑s ca iḍennat d tiwecca d wass‑a, minzi d netta i ten‑ixelqen.

Galilei deg 1630 yewca waha i wexarres‑nnes yeqqarn belli, amaḍal n 3 idiminsyunen (3D), ykarf deg umaḍal n 4D n wakuḍ‑amkan. Bnadem yeddaren ass‑a niɣ rexxu, d iḍennat i dd-t‑yejjin ad yili mamek yella ass-a.
Manaya yixes ad yini, axarres d tmegga n bnadem, d ijjen umsarbu n min yeddar d min yelmed iḍennaḍ, nzemmer ad nessen imal‑nnes, malla nessen amezruy-nnes. Ula d ddunit teṭṭewara ɛla ḥsab mamek tebda, d min day-s yeɛdun, mani teggur yettwassen.

Galileo Galilei – Felix Parra/The Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images

Aduqqeẓ Ameqqran (Big Bang)

Imussnawen d imerzzuten ttwalan belli amaḍal‑a yebda‑dd s uduqqeẓ amezwar. Yemsar qbel i 13,75 Milyar n iseggusa zeggʷami, zzag‑s id ibda kulci. Matiriya (lmadda), amkan, akud, din i dd-banen. Anejbed n wakud (time interval) amezwaru, iḥesseb s wakud n Planck. (Planck‑time) (5,391 x 10-44 s).
Di tfettut‑a tameẓẓyant n sigund, ca n tmeslayt i tuɣa tazzla‑nnes tujar tenni tfawt i yeggin aḍuqqeẓ amezwar, manaya wer dd-ittis akd Tiẓri tamassaɣt n Einstein (theory of relativity). Min yezwaren i wḍuqqeẓ amezgaru, ɛad wer xaf‑s ra d ijjen umsafaq.

Wikipedia

Ixef n usinag n Max‑Planck deg Uliman aprufissur Günther Hasinger, yettwala belli aɣraḍ (universe) yus-dd amenni waha (ṣudfa), yettwala illa yezwar Vakuum, lxawi-nni wer yexwi, yeccur s inirji (energy) n weɣraḍ marra. Di ca n imucan ttuɣa ttrisinti tuɛla aṭṭas, cwayt n unhezzi uca yeḍḍuqeẓ.

Maca urid yeqqen tmuɣri n beddu n ddunit da, yettwala belli zemmren ad ilin munen aṭṭas n iḍuqqiẓen deg ict twalat. Ad yili banen-dd aṭṭas n iɣraḍen (universes) nniḍen. Amessnaw n Ufizik Martin Bojowald yesrusa tiẓri n belli qbel i Big‑bang ttuɣa yella ca n weɣraḍ nniḍen, yefsi di wanita n yiḍ-a.

Ijjen tnayen n imussnawen zi Kanada, srusan-dd tiẓri n big‑bang d big Crunsh, qqaren belli Aɣraḍ aqqa-t deg ijjen wunuḍ n unejbed d ukmummec. Ttwalan belli qbel i wḍuqqeẓ‑a ttuɣa din ixubac ibarkanen. Aɣraḍ‑a qa-t ittnejbad, ar ɣa yaweḍ mani ɣa yebda ad ikmummec ɛawd, ar wer day-s yettɣimi walu, ad inneɛdem. Uca ad yebda kulci zi beddu.

Anejbed n weɣrad zi mani yedja – Nasa

Quantum‑Vakuum‑fluktuation n zik!

Tiẓri‑ya tebna x uṣaḍaf (Lqanun) n tiẓri n Quantum (Anict/cḥal) (Afizik n wanict), yettwalan belli asettif amezwaru n matirya yebda-dd zi walu, mani ttuɣa aṭṭas n idiminsyunen n wemkan d lweqt.

Dinni ixḍaren irmeskilen n ugama (constants of Nature ) mamek ɣa ṭewwren. Irmeskilen n mkul aɣraḍ mmarsen bla ma tili settfen, izemmar ad kid‑sen ilin aṭṭas n ibeddilen d ineqliben (fluktuation).

Zi ineqliben‑a (Fluktuation) i dd-yekka weɣraḍ‑nneɣ (universe), s min day-s zi ccuruṭ n tudart.

Nasa

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