29 novembre , 2021

Ammu i tebda tudert.


Melmi d manis i dd-tebda tudert twalat tamezgarut? Ɛad wer nessin nican. Imerzuten ggin tizemmar ad allɣn di lebḥur. Dewlen di trezzut‑nsen x weẓwar n tudert ɣer 3.5 milyar n iseggusa. Maca llan ca zag‑sen, qqaren aqa atiɣ d iṣefḍawen zeg ujenna i tt-dd‑yiwyen. Ass-a nixḍer‑dd rebɛa n tɣuriwin i yennan : Ammu i tebda tudert.

Tiẓri 1: Lebḥer aqdim.

Tamurt, 4 milyar n iseggusa zggami, teccur s iburkanen (Vulkan), deɛɛqen s tmessi, deḥḥan d igazen ɣer ujenna. Zi twala ɣer tenniḍen, ttuɣa ttemsarent laksidat n isefḍawen aked tmurt. Ccaten di lebḥurat, tterran‑ten ttextuxen. Deg wallaɣ n lebḥar, din iḥubaḍ mɣern, tekka‑dd zag‑sen tmessi.

Dag‑sen igazen d lmeɛden, ijjen chimyu yessur, akd lweqt mkur twalat tefɣend zzag‑s ca n leɛjubat. Ar mani d banent tsilulin (cellule) timezgura yeddren, i yebdan ad ṭewwrent ad arnint di tudert.

Tteḥqiq x tiẓri‑ya, belli tudert tebda di rallaɣ n lebḥer, di min yudsen leḥmu. Ijjen uklasi n baktirya umi qqarn « Archaea » niɣ bakteria yarcan. Marra iklusa n ibaktiryen yellan, ntaf‑iten deg aman id yekkin x lefḥem, di tḥemmant, niɣ lallaɣ n lebḥer.

Tiẓri 2: Taḥrirt n zik!

« Tiẓri n teḥririn » zi tɣuriwin yettwassnen x beddu n tudert sennej i tmurt. deg 1953 iḥeyyeḥ zag‑s umeḥḍar ucimi Stanley Lloyd Miller, s ca n tɛayarin (experiments) sehlent.

Istextex aman deg yijjen uṭubu n zzaj ‑ zɛma d Lebḥer amezgaru‑, Lefwar-nni yessur aked gaz n methan, amunyak (ammonia), d uhidrujin (hydrogen), ijjen teḥrirt terwes tenni i ggin iburkanen imezgura di tmurt.

Taḥrirt-nni, yessuneḍ‑itt s yijjen upistun, aked yijjen n elektrod ittegg massa. Zeɛma d ajjaj d uṣemmid d min das‑dd-yennḍen i tmurt. Trisinti-nni tessiwed taḥrirt ad tennerwi ad tegg ijjen « Reaction » i das‑dd ɣa yejjen asiḍu‑amin, i yellan d ddsas n tudert.
Aɛayar‑a i yegga Miller, d ijjen uṣurif yemɣer di trezzut x beddu n tudert. Mamek ittegg aṣudu‑amin yettedwar d tasilult tedder, ɛad wer yessin ra d ijjen.

Tizri 3: d isefḍawen i umi ɣa tqad!

Tizri n « Panspermia », (Tlatinit: πανσπερμία panspermía, zi πᾶν pãn „kulcci“ d σπέρμα spérma „zzerriɛet/aɛeqqa“. Teqqar belli tudert wer dd-tebdi amenni waha, maca zeg ujenna i dd-tusa. Iṣefḍawen zemmren ad ilin d nitnin i dd‑yessiwḍen imezgura n ibaktiryen i di tella tudert. Aɣyay n yesfeḍ, dag‑s aḍfel. Dag‑s zemmrent ad ilin tibaktiryatin xemmlent, ffrent zeg iṣeḍya n yetran ineqqen.

Tarzutin i ɣa yilin di ladas deg iṣefḍawen d min dag-sen ɣer daxel‑nsen. d tinni i ɣa yekksen afrag x tiẓri‑ya, ma d tidet? Imussnawen ttwalan belli deg uɛeqqa n yeṣfeḍ, din timeslayin xemmlent zi mani yexleq usistim‑a n tfukt i di nella.

Ula d tiẓri‑ya wer tufi ca mamek tebda tudert, maca terẓem tiwura i trezzutin nniḍn.

Tizri n "Panspermia", (Tlatinit: πανσπερμία panspermía, zi πᾶν pãn „kulcci“ d σπέρμα spérma „zzariɛet/aɛeqqa“. Teqqar belli tudert wer d tebdi amenni waha, maca zeg ujenna id tusa. Iṣefḍawen zemmren ad ilin d nitnin i dd‑yessiwḍen imezgura n ibaktiryen di tella tudert. Aɣyay n yiṣfeḍ, dag‑s aḍfel. Dag‑s zemmrent ad ilin tibaktiryatin xemmrent, ffernt zg iṣeḍya n yitran ineqqen.
niɣ Ammu i tebda tudert: isefḍawen!

D Uksijin i tt-yeggin!

Amezruy n tmurt yebda ad yari ixf‑nnes qbel i 2.5 milyar n iseggusa zeg wami: Mani i dd-iban uksijin di lhawa n tmurt, i daneɣ-itticcen ɣer wass-a minzi nedder.

Milyar n iseggusa awarn i beddu n lexliqat timzgura, bakteria n Cyano (Cyanobacteria) d tenni i ɣa iḍebbren deg imal n tmurt. Tisilulin‑a timeẓẓyanin, ggint tfawrt d ameɛɛec-nsent (Photosynthesis/ asaseq n tfawt). Afraḍ-nsent yeffeɣ‑dd d uksijin.

Milyar n iseggusa awarni beddu n lexliqat timzgura, bakteria n Cyano (Cyanobacteria) d tenni ɣa yḍebbren deg imal n tmurt. Tisilulin‑a timeẓyanin, ggint tfawrt d ameɛɛec nsent (Photosynthesis/ asaseq n tfawt). Afraḍ nsent yeffeɣ‑dd d oxijin.
Cyanobakterien

Cyanobakterya d min dd-terxu d afraḍ di lhawa (uksijin), i yucin tudert di lhawa n tmurt. Ɣer‑s ass-a, axumus (1/5) n lhawa-nneɣ d uksijin. Marra nessen belli bla netta, wer telli tudert. Ataf aqqa-neɣ ɛad d ibaktiryen waha!

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