8 décembre , 2021

Qbel ma a dd-saqaren tayri, adwal ɣer isuraf n lemlak deg umezruy.

Axarres n wuɣun n tayri aked lemlak ittas-aneɣ-dd d wenni d netta. Maca tayri, yallah ɛad mamek i dd-tessijj di tegdurt-a n lemlak i iqedmen s waṭṭas. Tayri tiweḍ-dd ɣer lemlak teɛḍel. Lemlak s tayri d ijjen uxarres d amaynu saqaren-t-idd wer tiwiḍ tnayen n leqrun zeggami waha. Ayenni! Mala slan imezwura s uxarres-a, a daneɣ-inin: Min tettjeqqlem?

Axarres n lemlak, iban-dd ɣer yewdan jer 1,8 melyun, al 23 alef n iseggusa zeggami. Maca walli amecnaw lemlak i yellan iḍa. Ttuɣa-t d ijjen lemlak ttbeddalen zeg-s astenfeɛ i wayawya: Necc a x-am ḥḍiɣ, cem ttegg-ayi ad cceɣ. Ttuɣa argaz d temɣart ttɣiman tlata niɣ rebɛa n iseggusa aked wayawya, uca ad nsexḍen, bac kul ijjen ad yerzu ad yegg ca n twacunt d tamaynut.

Ttuɣa bnadem lebda aqqa-t ittetliɛ. Wer yessiḥmi tamkant-nnes deg yijjen wemkan, alami i dd-isaqar akraz d ubeḥḥer n tbeḥḥar. Lexdenni yebda ad icebber di tmurt. Isaqar-dd asɣar rebɛalaf n iseggusa zeggami. Zi ssenni i dd-yebḍa beṭṭu n lxedmet jer wergaz d temɣart: Tamɣart di taddart ad tessgem isegman, argaz ad ibeḥḥer tibeḥḥar, ad yekrez timura. Dewlen wer ḥdijen ca ad telɛen madam ɣer-sen tamurt, tedwel nsen, tteggen deg-s min xsen.

Yebda lemlak itteqqen ɣer lxedmet. Yedwel wamun (lmujtamaɛ) yeḥdaj ad ineḍḍem ixf-nnes.

Aṭṭas n intruppulujiyen ttwalan belli tiwacunin ttuɣa deg-sent tigrawin n 30 waḥed deg yijjt. Kul tawacunt neddhen-tt waṭṭas n yergazen cerrken deg waṭṭas n temɣarin d iḥenjiren. Timɣarin merra d timɣarin-nsen, iḥenjiren merra d tarwa-nsen. Tawtemt tettegg-dd ijj n tmellalt kul cher, awtem yessazzal aman s qedda-waqedda, melmi ma. Tawtemt tettejja-dd ijj n usegmi di tesɛa n iyuren, awtem yezmer a dd-yejj kter zeg yijjen di tesɛa-nni n iyuren. Awtem irezzu ad yejbed di twacunt, a deg-s yessemɣer, wer ɣer-s bu webrid ɣer manayenni illa mala yemlek aked waṭṭas n temɣarin.

Lemlak ɣer umezwaru, ttuɣa wer yelli illa i ubeddi aked uɣezdis n wayawya, d westenfeɛ n twacunin ijjten zi tenneɣni, niɣ i westenfeɛ ɣer daxxel i twacunt d ijjt di win jer-asen. D manaya i teqqar « Stephanie Coontz », i yellan d tamselmedt n umezruy, d tamerzut deg iẓewran n twacunin, deg udlis-nnes « Amezruy n lemlak ». S umedya, tanfust n tayri i yettwassnen jer Antoine d Cléopâtre, ttuɣa-tt d ijjen usurif n tmunit jer Misra d Iṭalya. Teqqar Stephanie belli iwdan i ttuɣa yellan sennej, sxedmen lemlak bac ad ggen taɣruḍt ɣer teɣruḍt, ad smunen jjehd d igelwan. Amsiqḍi ttuɣa ittbedda xmi imellek ca n yijjen zeg yina aked ca n yijjten zeg yinin.

Cḥal n temɣarin?

Aḍaḍ i di tettraḥ txademt, deg-s aẓwer ittawi nican ɣer wul. Aṭṭas zi leɛwayed i yettwaḍefren lexxu, ɣer-sent iẓewran-nsent deg umezruy. S umedya; ayur n tammemt (Honeymoon), Ttuɣa ḥellwen tammemt di llyali i di dd-tetteffeɣ tziri, bac ad temmerni lganet n lemlak, bac timɣarin ad rwent mseqqem.

Lemlak ɛemmers ma ttuɣa-t mamek yella lexxu. Aṭṭas n temɣarin i yijj n wergaz, niɣ aṭṭas n yergazen i yijj n temɣart, ttuɣa-tt d ijj n tmeslayt tella deg waṭṭas n imukan deg umaḍal. Leqrun d yewdan amenni.

Lemlak aked waṭṭas n temɣarin (polygamy) ttuɣa yella, al lɛahed n irumaniyen, umi tessers lkanisa n tarumanit ca n izerfan ttejjan argaz s uɣil ad yemlek aked yijj n temɣart waha (Monogamie).

Di Ccinwa, ttuɣa taqqut wer x-as bu wefrag. Icinwiyen ttuɣa ttɛicen di tegrawin bla ma a ɣer-sen yili uxarres i yeqqaren: tamɣart-a n wa, ta n win. Ttuɣa aḥenjir ɣer-s kter zeg yijj n tyemmat, ttawḍent al rebɛa n tyemmatin: Ijten d tayemmat tajellidt ttlaɣan-as « yemma tameqqrant », tinneɣni d tiyemmatin timeẓẓyanin, niɣ ttlaɣan-asent « xalti ». Xemsalaf n iseggusa d nitni ammu, alami i tiweḍ Ccinwa ɣer lemlak n yijjen aked yijjten (Monogamie).

Deg Umarikan, ttuɣa yettwassen lemlak n kter zeg yijj n temɣart ɣer yijj n terfiqt n imasiḥiyen. Ibedd manayenni awarn i umi yedwel Wilford Woodruff d amɣar n lkanisa aseggas n 1890. Maca igmamen n lkanisa wer ḥeyyden nican i lemlak n waṭṭas n temɣarin al aseggas n 1899. Ca zeg yinni i yeffɣen x lkanisa siɣin deg wesmuni n waṭṭas n temɣarin i lemlak, maca s tnuffra.

Lemlak n waṭṭas n yergazen, ma a dd-yas aked imunen itraren?

Aseggas n 2010, yemlak Arrayes n Tefriqt n yeffus »Jacob Zuma », i twalat wiss xemsa. Tamɣart-nnes tamezwarut i yiwi aseggas n 1973, ttuɣa-tt dinni, teḥḍer di tmeɣra. Tamɣart-nnes wiss tnayen, ttuɣa-tt dinni tessewjad i wesnewju n inewjiwen. Zuma ttuɣa ɣer-s tnayen n temɣarin nniḍen, ijjten yellef-as aseggas n 1998, tenniḍen tenɣa ixf-nnes aseggas n 2000.

Arrayes Jacob Zuma aked tlata n temɣarin-nnes, Thobeka Madiba, Nompumelo Ntuli d Sizakele Khumalo (zi ẓelmeḍ ɣer yeffus). Tadelsa n zoulou tsemmeḥ s tpuligamit (la polygamie). [MIKE HUTCHINGS / AFP]

Lexdenni yemmers-dd useqsi: Ma lemlak aked waṭṭas ittas-dd aked zzman-a i di nettɛic? Mala nexs a nesseqsa kter; ma ittnasab ijj n ddewla am Tefriqt n yeffus, i di yuli nnumru n yewdan i yelqef AIDS? Aṭṭas i yeqqimen ttranyaw: Kul ijjen ittejja-dd 19, mamek tegga ddewla-ya i ɣa iqedden ina?

Lexdenni tus-dd twarrit x useqsi-ya ammu: Yif aterras ad yestekfa s yijjten waha. Manaya d ijj n lḥajet tecna tteggen-tt isiyasiyen n Uruppa. Amen ɛawed wer nettettu belli ddustur n Tefriqt n yeffus deg-s belli aterras yezmer ad yawi kter zeg yijjten.

Tegga tseddawit nWisconsin (University of Wisconsin) ijjen trezzut aseggas n 1998 x tmamekt n lemlak ɣer kter i alef n imunen deg umezruy. Tufa belli 186 n imunen ttuɣa ɣer-sen lemlak d amettijj (kul ijjen ittawi ijjten). 453 n imunen ttuɣa ɣer-sen lemlak n kter zeg yijjten, maca walli lebda. 588 ttuɣa ɣer-sen lemlak n yijjen aked waṭṭas n temɣarin, s waṭṭas. Rebɛa n imunen waha i ttuɣa ɣer yella temɣart ɣer-s lḥeqq ad tawi kter zeg yijj n wergaz.

Ttwalan yintruppulujiyen, belli asmuni di lemlak jer yijjen wergaz d waṭṭas n temɣarin, ttuɣa-t yella deg waṭṭas n isuraf zeg umezruy n yewdan deg umaḍal.

Tamɣart, ma ttuɣa ɣer-s lḥeqq ad tawi aṭṭas n yergazen deg yijj n twala?

Yezmer a dak-dd-iban uxarres-a urid amenni, maca ttuɣa-t yella. Ɣer ssibbet-nnes mayemmi i dd-yusa. Amen ggin yergazen aṭṭas n temɣarin, dinni imunen mani ggint temɣarin aṭṭas n yergazen. (Polyandrie).

Di « Tibet », ttuɣa tamɣart tettegg aṭṭas n yergazen, Amen ttuɣa yella ɣer tqebbal n « sherpa » d « Todas » di Lhend. D imezdaɣ n tegzirin n « Marquises ».

Di ca n ledcur ttwattun di Himalaya, wer dd-tterrin lexber i min yellan ɣer berra. Ttmunen waṭṭas n wawmaten d iwetman x yijj n temɣart, tettawy-iten merra. Ttmunen deg yijj n tmeɣra. (Polyandrie fraternelle). Merra irgazen ttɛicen aked yijj n temɣart, tudert-nsen teggur bla imxumbal. Ttmunen i tudert; Snennan, sseccan iḥenjiren imeẓẓyanen…

Ttmunen wawmaten, carrken deg yijj n temɣart, minzi s manaya d ijjen wudem n tnamit aked ugama (ṭṭabiɛa). Minzi timura n taẓẓut udrusent. Ɛawed tawacunt ttuɣa tettexs ad tejj tamurt tmun, wer tt-beṭṭin ca wawmaten jer-asen. Wa zeg yijj uɣezdis. Zeg uɣezdis nniḍen; ttexsen s manaya ad ttḥekkmen di cḥal i dd-ɣa jjen n iḥenjiren. Minzi mala kul ijjen yiwi ijjten, a dd-jjen aṭṭas, walli amecnaw mala aṭṭas cerken deg yijjten, lexdenni a dd-jjen drus.

Dinni ijjen weklasi nniḍen n lemlak, tettwai deg-s temɣart argaz nniḍen sennej i wergaz i ɣer-s yellan. Maca argaz wiss tnayen ittili ittɛawan waha, minzi argaz amezwaru ili yemmut-as, niɣ wer itterri bu mezri i temɣart-nnes. Manaya nettaf-it yella ɣer imezdaɣ n tegzirin n « Marquises » .

Di lebɛaḍ n tdelsiwin n Umarikan n yeffus, nettaf lemlak n temɣart aked kter zeg yijj n wergaz ɣer-s min t-itteqqnen aked uxarres n tbabat icerken. Tamɣart tettawi ijj n wergaz, maca tetteṭṭes aked waṭṭas, bac mmi-s a ɣer-s ilin waṭṭas n ibabaten ibyulujiyen, walli ijjen waha.

Manis dd-yekka uxarres n lemlak aked kter zeg yijjten?

Mala ttuɣa neẓra lesbab n lemlak n yijj n temɣart aked kter zeg yijjen, i min ittejjan argaz ad yawi kter zeg yijjten?

Tasɣart tameqqrant n uxarres-a tekk-dd zi ddin. Mala nedwel ɣer tenfust n Krishna, i yellan d ijjen wakuc d ahindus, ttuɣa ɣer-s kter zi 16 alef n temɣarin.

Lemlak n yijjen aked waṭṭas n temɣarin, yettwassen zeg-s wamun ameslem. Kter ɛad, di lɣerb n Tefriqt. S umedya, di Sinigal, 50% n yergazen iwyen kter zeg yijjten. Wer nettettu ɛawed ɛlayen merra timura n waɛraben deg-sent manaya, rni x-asent Iritirya d Malizya d Mali d Nijer d Iran…

Deg Uruppa d Umarikan d Ustralya, argaz wer ɣer-s bu lḥeq ad yawi kter zeg yijjten. Lami i mxumblen imunen, yedwel lemlak d ijjen lḥajet ittxessa-tt ad tili s uɣil, zeg yijjen teɣmert n tdemsa (l’économie) d tsertit (politique). S uya, yemsar ijjen wemsiqḍi d azegrar jer lkanisa d ddewla deg Uruppa. Niɣ amen tenna Stephanie Coontz: Jer lkanisa zeg yijj ujemmaḍ, d ijelliden d ayt igelwan zeg ujemmaḍ nniḍen, inni i yexsen ad rnin timɣarin nniḍen. Iwa wi ɣa ifekken amxumbel-a?

Lkanisa takatulikt tbedd x uḍar-nnes nican, alami terra lemlak d amettijj (kul ijjen ad yawi ijjten). Bac ad tesseɣmi lemlak-a amettijj deg wamun, tekkes x wellaf. Deg 1215, ggin belli wenni i yexsen ad yemlek, yeffuk a dd-yekk afus n lkanisa. Bac wer tettɣimi bu tmasext manis ɣa rewlen yergazen ad raḥen ɣa temɣarin nniḍen. Timeslayin n lemlak, ɛeddunt-idd x tiṭṭ n lkanisa. Manaya yekka ca n sebɛa n leqrun, alami i t-tekkes lkanisa takatulikt di ttamaninat.

Tayri saqaren-tt-idd!

Teqqar Stephanie Coontz belli ca n yewdan ittɣil-asen tayri tettbedda kuntra i leɛwayed n wamun. Amecnaw Lhend taqdimt. Awal n « tayri » di tutlayt n Ccinwa taqdimt, texs ad tini: ijj n min itteqqnen jer wergaz d temɣart, wer t-ittexs ca wamun. Iḥenjiren i ttuɣa dd-ittlulen berra i lemlak, ttuɣa ttsemman-ten: « iḥenjiren n tayri ».

Stephanie Coontz, tateswirt: Wikipedia

Di ca n imunen n Uruppa, amecnaw Aglanzi n lɛahed Abikturi (Époque victorienne), iwdan ttuɣa wer ttexsen ca ad neɛmen qeɛ illa tamɣart tettili ɣer-s lganet n taqqut. Ula d axarres n lemlak s tayri niɣ s tmexsa, ttuɣa wer yelli qeɛ.

Amutti zeg yijjen wamun yebna x tfellaḥt d ubeḥḥer n tbeḥḥar, ɣer tdemsa tilellit (Economie libre), mamek tettwala Stephanie, Yerẓem tawwurt n lemlak i yebnan x tmexsa, bla lemlak i zi swaẓẓaḍen twacunin ɣer yijjten d tenniḍen ḥuma ad ggent taɣruḍt ɣer teɣruḍt. Yedwel mmi-s wer ittriji ɣer baba-s ḥuma a t-yewret. Yeksi ixf-nnes. S uya, ittxarres ammu: « Ad awyeɣ wi xseɣ ».

Tebda cwayt n tfawt n wemquddi tessajja-dd, umi i yebda umaḍal ittessen ijjen lḥajet qqaren-as amquddi jer wewtem d tewtemt. Umi i yebda ittnurẓum x tseqqar n temɣart. Umi i tebda temɣart ad teksi ixf-nnes deg uɣezdis n tdemsa, manaya yallah ca n 50 n iseggusa zeggami waha. Hnahna, ttuɣa tamɣart deg Umarikan, a deg-s yegg wergaz-nnes min yexs, ttuɣa wer ɣer-s bu lḥeqq a ɣer-s yili leḥsab di lbanku s yisem-nnes.

Umi i yennufsel lemlak zeg ufus n twacunt i ittexsen a zeg-s tcedd iseɣwan aked twacunt-nniḍen, temmerni tlelli ɣer yewdan ḥuma ad ixḍaren wi ɣa awyen. Alami niweḍ ɣer yijjen weklasi n lemlak n temɣart aked temɣart, niɣ n wergaz aked wergaz.

Di 18 zi may 1970, tnayen n imeḥḍaren di tseddawit n Minnesota (University of Minnesota) ttren zi lmeḥkama ḥuma ad ten-tejj ad melken. Bnan manaya x lqanun n Minnesota, nnan-as, wer yenni ca wiked yeffuk ad tmelked s uɣil, ma aked wergaz niɣ aked temɣart. Lmeḥkama tugi-asen. Deg useggas-nni awern-as, rnin di lqanun belli lemlak yeffuk ad yili s uɣil jer wergaz d temɣart, Bac wer reẓẓmen bu tewwurt zi jjdid i ca n ḥedd.

Awarn i yijjen wemsiqḍi d azegrar, teqbel lmeḥkama ḥuma ad yezmer wergaz ad yawi argaz, niɣ tamɣart ad tawi tamɣart. Lexxu manaya aqqa-t di 25 n dduwal deg umaḍal amen yekmel.

S ugarnez, teqqar Stephanie: « Di ssettinat, ttuɣa ttamnen yintruppulujiyen belli lemlak lemlak saqaren-t-idd bac ad ḥman tamɣart d iḥenjiren. Uca usint-idd temswetmin (les féministes) di ssebɛinat, bac ad sseknent belli lemlak ittejja irgazen ad ggen aḍar x temɣarin d iḥenjiren. Maca di tidet mala nexzar mliḥ ɣer lemlak, a t-naf wer ɣer-s bu ca n lḥajet nneɣnit kter zi min ittejja iwdan ad ilin d ayyawen! ».

Tura-t: Mirhan Fuad
Yesmezɣ-it: Ɛebdelwaḥed ḤENNU

Ɣer ɛawed: Kul ijjen mamek ittwala: D iselman?.. Lla, d ca nniḍen!

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