8 décembre , 2021

Amussu amaziɣ di Lmeɣrib, zi beddu n lebni, ɣer wemsebḍi n yebriden (1/2)

Ɛ. ḤENNU

Zegga i yeffeɣ uḥewwas zi tmurt n Lmuɣrib, ṭṭfen x-as lemfateḥ yewdan i ɣer tella lxezrat n usemẓi d useɛqer i merra min yellan d amaziɣ. Manaya iban-dd zeg isegg°usa imezwura n wesbeddi n yijjen ddewla d tatrart. Umi i xsen ad ssersen aẓru n ddsas i uselmed di Lmuɣrib, reẓmen tiwura i yijjen tiwura n yijjen tsertit tasnilest (politique linguistique) tebna x wesɛarreb. Ttebcayar n wesɛarreb ttuɣa banent-idd zi qbel, maca deg usegg°as n 57, umi tessers tyemmunt tajeldant n weɛdal n uselmed (la Commission Royale de la Réforme de l’Education) rebɛa n ipilaren x-asen ɣa ibedd wexxam n uselmed, zeg ipilaren-a nettaf dinni asɛarreb.

Inni i yessugguren tamurt n Lmerruk sxinectaren qbala deg isuraf n wesɛarreb, s wesbeddi n usinag n tɣuriwin d trezzutin i wesɛarreb (Institut d’Etudes et de Recherchespou l’Arabisation) asegg°as n 1960, d udustur amezwaru n Lmerruk i yettwaggen asegg°as n 1962, i di dd-yusa belli Lmerruk, tutlayt-nnes tunsibt nettat d taɛrabt. Asegg°as-nni s yexf-nnes, ad ggen taɛrabt d tutlayt i ɣa yilin deg uselmed amenzu.

Tamaziɣt i ttuɣa yellan d iles n wemsawaḍ jer yewdan di merra min tteḥdajan, di tfellaḥt d leswaq d izurag… Tedwel d ijjen yiles wer ɣer-s bu wemkan di lidarat d sekwilat n ddewla tatrart. Yedwel umezduɣ amaziɣ wer iqeṭṭi lɣaraḍ-nnes di ca n lidara illa mala yessen taɛrabt. D manaya i yejjin taɛrabt a ɣer-s yili yijjen wemkan yemɣar x wenni i yellan ɣer tmaziɣt. Taɛrabt d iles i yellan di sekwilat, d iles i yellan di lekwaɣeḍ, d iles i iqeṭṭan lɣaraḍ. D manaya i t-yejjin ad yeẓẓuɣer ajertil adu yiles amaziɣ, a kid-s yemdeḥḥas deg wemkan n usexdem-nnes. Alami aṭṭas n imukan mani i ttuɣa ssawalen yewdan tamaziɣt, dewlen tarwa-nsen d wayyawen-nsen ssawalen taɛrabt.

Aked ineggura n ssettinat, d imezwura n ssebɛinat, ad kumasan imaziɣen i yeɣrin, ad fetnen aked tsertit-a i di tugur ddewla i ixeddmen tadyulujit n wesɛarreb, tneqq tamaziɣt s merra min ɣer-s yeqqnen n tnettit d tdelsa d tutlayt… Manaya ttuɣa yeggur x uɣezdis n min ittemsaren di Lezzayer, kter ɛad, di Leqbayel. D aya i ɣa yejjen aṭṭas n imeɣnasen d idelsanen d imussnawen imaziɣen, ad xellsen x webrid i ḍefren. Zeg-sen wi yettwakren wer ibin ɣer lexxu, am wesniles amaziɣ Bujemɛa Hebbaẓ i yettwaksin asegg°as n 1981, wer yessin ḥedd mani yella ɣer lexxu. Zeg-sen ɛawed Ɛali Sidqi Azayku i yettwaḥebbsen ass n 9 zi yulyuz 1982, x yijjen umegrad yura-t, azwel-nnes: “Deg webrid bac a nefhem nican tadelsa-nneɣ tanamurt”…. zeg-sen ɛawed Qaḍi Qeddur i yettwanɣen s yijjen laksida deg-s inna!…

Rrbu-ya n ufaqi n imaziɣen, aked tsertit n wesɛarreb i imeḥḥan tanettit-nsen, yessiweḍ-iten ḥuma ad sbedden tamesmunt tamezwarut asegg°as n 1967. Tnayen n isegg°usa awern-as, a dd-tlul yijjen tmesmunt nniḍen qqaren-as Agraw n imaziɣen (l’Accademie Berbère) di Paris, bedden x-as ca n imeɣnasen d iqbayliyen. D ta d tamesmunt i dd-ɣa yesfaqen tabridt n tira s tfinaɣ, i ttuɣa yellan d isekkilen ttarin zeg-sen imaziɣen n Sseḥra waha.

Awaren-as, ad kumasant a dd-banent tmesmunin nniḍen i yejjin later-nsent deg wazzerg n tdelsa tamaziɣt, d min wcint ɛawed deg usewjed n inaẓuren d yewdan i yeggin tarezzut di tmaziɣt d lqibelt n trezzut x tidet d wexbac x iẓewran. Zi tmesmunin-a, dinni “Linṭilaqa ttaqafiya” di Nnaḍur, i dd-ilulen ass n 22 yennayr 1978. Ttuɣa yesseggura-tt wemɣar-nnes Qaḍi Qeddur, i ttuɣa yellan d asniles, d amselmed di tseddawit n Fas. Aked uɣezdis-nnes, banen-dd yismawen nniḍen recmen azzerg n tẓuri d tdelsa tamaziɣt di Nnaḍur d Arif, d Lmerruk amen yekmel. Zeg-sen: Marẓuq Lweryaci, Muḥemmed Ccami, Ḥusayen Lqamari, Ḥmed Aquḍaḍ, Faḍma Lweryaci, Ḥmed Benjilali, Muḥemmed Busḥaḥ, Ɛellal Cileḥ, Saɛid Lmusawi, Muḥemmed Ṭṭufali, Lwalid Mimun… Ismawen-a, d yismawen nniḍen, ca ilul-dd aked Linṭilaqa, ca nneɣni iɛan ɣer-s bac ad teṭṭef isuraf-nnes deg yiger n tdelsa d tutlayt tamaziɣt, al ɣa tedḥa d itri, tfawt-nnes aqqa-tt ɛad wer texsiy ɣer lexxu.

Dinni ɛawed tamesmunt n Tamaynut i ibedden asegg°as n 1978, Awarn i Linṭilaqa Ttaqafiya s drus. A dd-tlul ɛawed asegg°as n 1979, yijten zi tmesmunin timeqqranin i yeggin isuraf mɣaren deg yiger adelsan amaziɣ, nettat d tamesmunt n tseddawit n unebdu. Tamesmunt-a i yeggin twala tamezwarut n tseddawit n unebdu asegg°as n 1980, i yettwassnen s wemherwaḍ deg waṭṭas n iɣezdisa n tussna d umezruy d tesnilest d tsekla… Ḥeḍren deg-s yismawen ɣer-sen lewzen-nsen deg umussu amaziɣ, amecnaw Qaḍi Qeddur d Muḥemmed Cafiq d Merẓuq Lweryaci d Ḥmed Bukus d Muḥemmed Ccami… Zi ssenni, tracca n tmesmunin timaziɣin ad temmerni asegg°as awarn i wenniḍen, kter ɛad deg isegg°usa n ttesɛinat, mani i dd-ɣa bbɛebɛent tmesmunin s waṭṭas d merra tineddam d ibilajen. Lexdenni ɛawed i dd-ɣa iban yijjen webrid di nnaqaba n imeḥḍaren di tseddawit, ittegg isuraf d imaziɣen, yeksi x yiri-nnes leḥmel n tɣawsa tamaziɣt zi ɣer daxxel n UNEM. Nessawal da x MCA di tseddawit, i yiwḍen bac ad temneɛ ixf-nnes deg yijjen wammas n wemsiqḍi aked lemwaj n uxarres n tuɛɛerba i ttuɣa yellan deg wazzerg n tseddawit.

Deg usegg°as n 1991, a dd-yeffeɣ yijjen lmitaq i ɣa yesmunen rray n setta n tmesmunin timaziɣen, di twala wiss rebɛa n tseddawit n unebdu. Zi tmesmunin i isinyin x lmitaq-a, dinni AMREC d tmesmunt n tseddawit n unebdu di Agadir, d tmesmunt n Aɣris di Gelmima, d tmesmunt Tamaynut di Arbaṭ, d tmesmunt n Ilmas di Nnaḍur d tmesmunt tadelsant n Sus di Ddalbiḍa. Lmitaq-a i di ɣa ttwaksint waṭṭas n tutriwin i twalat tamezwarut, zeg-sent asidef n tmaziɣt di ddustur d ijjen tutlayt d tanamurt aked uɣezdis n taɛrabt, d usufeɣ n yijjen usinag n tɣuriwin d trezzutin n tmaziɣt, ad ibedd x tmeslayin-a: ad yegg tabridt n tira d ijjten i tmaziɣt (wer dd-yusi ca man asekkil i zi ttwalan ad tettwari tmaziɣt), d wesmuni n tutlayt ḥuma ad tili d ijjten, d usewjed n yedlisen d tmeslayin i ɣa yeshewnen adaf n tmaziɣt deg yiger n uselmed di Lmerruk.

Zi tutriwin n lmitaq-a, dinni ɛawed i twalat tamezwarut ttren deg-s asidef n tmaziɣt deg uselmed, di sekwilalt d tseddawitin. Amen ttren ɛawed a das-tettwawc i tmaziɣt tesɣart-nnes di rraḍyu d wetlibizyun.

Isegg°usa n ttesɛinat ttuɣa ccuren s temsarin i ɣa ibeddlen lxezrat n umussu amaziɣ di Lmerruk. Kter ɛad zegga i tebda tettiriw tisi n imeɣnasen i yekksin amnus n tɣawsa tamaziɣt, d wembezzaɛ n tmesmunin di ɛlamkul abilaj d temdint, d uḍuqqeẓ n umussu adelsan amaziɣ di tseddawitin i yedḥan d ijjen nnumru wer yelli wi t-ɣa yeɛdun.

Awarn i tnayen n isegg°usa x lmitaq, ad yedḥa d ijjen tewriqt d tadyulujit imun x-as weglaf n tmesmunin (11 n tmesmunin), ggint asɣim anamur-nsent. A dd-taweḍ tsersiwt n 1 mai 1994, ad yemsar yijjen wemradaf jer umussu amaziɣ d lmexzen, xmi i ɣa ttwaṭṭfen imeɣnasen n tmesmunt n Tilelli di Rracidiya, zegga i ksin ijjen llafita tura s tfineɣ, ttettren deg-s asenseb n tmaziɣt di ddustur n Lmerruk.  Manaya i ɣa yejjen amussu amaziɣ ad iɣewweɣ, ad yemmerni jjehd n tmesmunin. X-as uca tus-dd tsersiwt n yinaw n Lḥasan wiss 2 di 20 ɣuct 1994, i yessiwlen i twalat tamezwarut x usidef n tentalatin timaziɣin di sekwila tamerrukt.

Awarn i manaya, a dd-yas wemsawaḍ n imaziɣen n Lmerruk aked imaziɣen n tmura nneɣni di Tmezɣa, zeg-s, xarrsen deg usiweḍ n tɣawsa-nsen ɣer umaḍal. D manaya i ttuɣa yellan, sbedden akungris amaḍlan amaziɣ (CMA) asegg°as n 1995, agraw amezwaru n wesbeddi ttuɣa-t di Fransa. Agraw amezwaru ad yili di tegzirin tiknariyin asegg°as n 1997, agraw wiss tnayen di Lyun di Fransa asegg°as n 1999, agraw wiss tlata di Bruksil asegg°as n 2002, agraw wiss rebɛa di 2005 di temdint n Nnaḍur, ttuɣa-t d wenni d agraw amezwaru di tmurt n Tamezɣa, d wenni d agraw aneggaru qbel i wegraw i di ɣa msebḍan imaziɣen jer yinni i yexsen ad ggen agraw di Meknas, d yinni i yexsen a t-ggen di Tizi Wezz di Lezzayer.

Di 22 yunyu 1996, munent 18 n tmesmunin, sqadent ijjen tebrat i ujellid, ttetrent deg-s bac ad yessidef tamaziɣt deg udustur i dd-ɣa yeffɣen d jjdid, i ɣa yeṭṭfen amkan n udustur n 62 i di ttuɣa wer telli jjurret n tmaziɣt. Tabrat-a tessers ɛawed afus x tɣuni n Lmeɣrib ɣer Tefriqt d Tmiditiranit, deg wemkan n weqqan-nnes aked ccerq.

Zi 96 sennej, ad terreẓ tmunt tanamurt n tmesmunin timaziɣin, zegga i dd-mmernint waṭṭas n tmesmunin zeg waṭṭas n imukan di Lmerruk. D aya i ɣa yewcen tfawt tazegzawt n umuni n tmesmunin di kul jjihet. Bdant asegg°as n 1998, 12 n tmesmunin zi Arif ggint ijjen tkunfidiralit di Arif. Aked uɣezdis n tkunfidiralit-a, ttuɣa dinni tayemmunt n Qaḍi Qeddur, zeg-s ad ttceddant awal tmesmunin di win jer-asent x min itthemman iger adelsan amaziɣ di Arif. Maca wer din min tekka uca yewta deg-s lbaz. Deg wadday n Lmerruk, ad tbedd yijjen tkunfidiralit nniḍen qqaren-as “tamunt n yeffus” di lwesṭ n Lmerruk, tban-dd dinni tmunt n “Amyafa”.

Yemmerni jjehdi n umussu amaziɣ, tiriw tisi n tmeɣnasin d imeɣnasen-nnes, maca tkumasa tettban-dd tazzit i zi dd-ittadef usemmiḍ i ittejjan amsefham wer ittili x ca n tmeslayin deg umussu-ya. Tareẓẓit n tmunt tanamurt d wedwal ɣer lxedmet di tmunin di kul jjihet, yesskan ɣer cwayt n wenhezzi i yerẓin ca zi leḥyuḍ n tmunt n umussu amaziɣ. Maca waxxa amenni, Lḥukuma n Lyusfi di 1998 tessiwel i twalat tamezwarut x tmaziɣt, tenna x-as belli d ijjen uɣezdis d ameqqran zi tnettit tanamurt, X-as, uca a dd-yas lmitaq anamur n usegmi d uselmed i dd-yidaren tamaziɣt di lmadda 115 d 116, bac ad tili d ijjen tutlayt a x-as ɛemmden ḥuma ad tessehwen aselmed n tutlayt tunsibt i yellan d taɛrabt.

Asemẓi i yegga lmitaq zi tmaziɣt yejja imaziɣen ad xarrsen deg usurif n “Tawada”, bac ad ṭṭfen di tutriwin-nsen, d min xsen i tɣawsa-nsen. Asegg°as n 2000, a dd-yari Muḥemmed Cafiq ijjen ulaɣi yessers-dd deg-s ul n uxarres n min ɣer yiweḍ uxarres n umussu Amaziɣ di Lmerruk. Manaya, yessenhezz cwayt amussu amaziɣ, s tegrawin d yemsagaren i di ttuɣa ttemharwaḍen x min dd-yusin deg ulaɣi n Cafiq.

Alaɣi-ya i ɣa yilin d tisi i xef ɣa yemmers useqsi n “min ɣa negg?”, niɣ aseqsi n man abrid ɣa yeḍfer umussu amaziɣ di Lmeṛruk?. Manaya yesban-dd tlata n yebriden: abrid i ittlaɣan ɣer wesbeddi n yijjen ukabar d asertan ad yeksi amnus n tɣawsa tamaziɣt, di lweqt mani azzerg asertan d ikabaren n Lmerruk wer dd-rrin qeɛ lexber i tmaziɣt. Abrid wiss tnayen ittlaɣa ɣer wesbeddi n yijjen tmesmunt ɣer-s isuraf d isertanen, zeg-s ad yesmun umussu amaziɣ ijjen lxezrat d tasertant ɣer tɣawsa tamaziɣt. abrid aneggaru ilaɣa ɣer lxedmet zi ɣer daxxel n yijjen umussu d asertan, ad tili tigg°ej x ikabaren, wer tettexs bu ad teḥkem. Tawriqt-a yus-dd zeg-s Umussu adelsan amaziɣ di tseddawit (MCA), isemma-tt “Amussu n imeɣnas i tlelli d tdimuqraṭit”.

Ɣer ɛawed: Adaf n irifiyen deg wemsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen

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