Ma s tidett msuluḥen iḥewwasen aked Wafrika?

Iggur ad iraḥ, Philipe ajellid n Biljik ɣer Ukungu i twalat tamezwarut (d ijj n tmurt i iḥewwsen lejdud-nnes), maḥend ad iɛawed ad yerẓem tiɣuniwin d jjdid aked tmurt-a, zegga i x-as teɛda 60 iseggusa zeg wami teṭṭef tilelli-nnes.

Ajellid iggur akid-s traḥ tamɣart-nnes, tajellidt Mathilde, d ca n igmamen n tenbaḍt Tabeljikit, zzag-sen awzir amezwaru Alexander De Croo, deg yijj n usafar ad ikk setta n wussan, zegga i x-asen d-iɛreḍ unessixef n n RDC, Felix Tshisekedi.

Aya, d arzaf ad iqqim yeɣza deg umezruy ɣer Teyduda Tadimukraṭit n Ukungu, minzi d arzaf Abeljiki  amezwaru ca 12 iseggusa zi mani.

Asafar-a yus-d tnayen iseggusa ɛawed zi mani ajellid n Biljik inna belli dinni ijjen “tayerzawt tulleɣ” x “iyezzimen” i yegga asistim akulunyal n tmurt-nnes.

Ajellid Philippe netta d ayyaw n ujellid Léopold II, i ttuɣa yellan d ajellid di lqern 19, mani lɛahed-nnes iẓra tamenɣiwt n 10 n imelyunen n wafrikanen i yemmuten adu ufus uḥewwas.

Di tebrat-a i yessek ɣer wemɣar Tshiskekedi, wami teɛda 10 iseggusa zi mani teṭṭef Kungu tilelli-nnes, ajellid Philippe issiwel-d di twalat tamezwarut x “tiyerziwin-nnes” bla ma ad itter ca n uwadem niɣ ssmaḥet.

Tarezzift-a tettas-d bac ad asen-itter i wagdud Akunguli ssmaḥet, s ijjen tebridt d tamaddudt (officielle).

Maca, ta, maci d twalat tamezwarut mani ca n wemɣar Awruppi ad yaf zzat-s tiɛeffanin ttwaggent deg wakud Akulunyal.

Ca n tmura ttrent ssmaḥet s ijjen tebridt d tamaddudt, mani ca n tmura-nniḍen yalleh mamec neɛment s ca n temsarin d tiɛeffanin.

Imekritiken qqaren belli iwadmen (les excuses) wer ttriḥen ca gg°jen aṭṭas bac ad ɛedlen tuɛeffna n min d-newret zi tkulunyalt.

Deg iseggusa-ya imeggura, timura ameknaw UK, Aliman, Fransa ttuɣa-tent adu tfawin alaḥsab min ggin ifassen n yemɣaren-nnes iqdimen d ɣezzu.

Da iggur a nessiwel x ca n tmura i yewcin awadem, niɣ msetfaqent x umezruy-nnsent akulunyal.

Man tḥajit min xef nessawal?

ikulunyaliyen qessen fus i yenni ttuɣa ttagin ad xedmen s bezzez deg Ukungu. Tala: Getty images

Ajellid Léopold II n Biljik, temmewc-as aṭṭas n tmura x wezɣar ameqqran n yeɣzar n Ukungu di tinawt n Berlin aseggas n 1885, mani bḍan imɣaren Iwruppiyen timura n Wafrika deg yiger n min ittwassnen s umɛutrus x Wafrika.

Ajellid ilaɣa-as i tmurt-a “ddewla tilellit n Ukungu” i ttuɣa yellan d ijjen tḥewwast ad dag-s igg min ixes netta.

Asistim-a i yessers ujellid, idwel deɣya deɣya ibna x tuɛeffna, am usexxar n bezzez maḥend ad ẓẓun, ad zzenzen ca n tmesalyin am ulastik, lɛaj d lmeɛden.

Biljik tiweḍ a tqess ifassen i yenni wer ixsen bu ad xedmen niɣ inni wer iggin ca n lxedmet-nnsen amen tenna.

Deg ibedditen i yemsaren deg umaḍal di min ittwassnen s Black Lives Matter, imelyunen Ibeljikiyen i d-yehwan ɣer izubaq bac ad ttren zi tmurt-nnsen a terr taynit i umezruy-nnes Akulunyal.

Lewsifet n ujellid Léoplod II di tneddam ceyynen-tent, awern-as Beljika tekkes lewsifet-nnes zeg izuray.

“ijjen tiqqest d tameqqrant” x tissumɣa i yemsaren di Jamayka

Ajeldun William d nettat issawal deg umensi-nni di Jamayka x ɣezzu n uḥewwes. Tala: Reuters.

Deg usari ageldan abriṭani deg ukaraybi di mars i yeɛdan, issiwel-d ujeldun “William” x tiqqest-nnes tameqqrant di min iqqnen ɣer tissumɣa deg yinaw-nnes i yewca deg ijjen umensi i yegga di Jamayka.

Dduk-a, inna aweddi aqqa tissumɣa d ijjen tmeslayt d taɛeffant, ttuɣa “ixess-as ɛemmers a tili”, a teqqim “tbeqqeḍ amezruy-nneɣ i lebda”.

Maca imekritikan nnan aqqa awal x usḥissef d wenɛam s min imsaren aqqa yalleh d asusef x tiqqad waha.

Arzaf-a ageldan, reḥḥben zzag-s s iɣuyyan d ibedditen, mani ttuɣa ttlaɣan midden tajeldit a txelles min tegga d tuɛeffna s ufus-nnes.

Aliman yenɛem s tmenɣiwin i yegga di Namibiya

Yenni n Ovaherero mamec ttwaṭṭfen, maca aṭṭas zzag-sen nɣin-ten Ilimaniyen. Tala: Getty Images.

Deg useggas n 2021, Aliman yenɛem belli yenɣa luluf n midden di Namibiya. Nzemmer a nini ila ca n 60 000 zeg inni n Ovaherero, i ttuɣa i tteggen ca n 80% zeg imezdaɣ n wagdud-a, d 10 000 zeg wagdud n Nama, i ttuɣa itteggen 50% zeg wegdud-a, nɣin-ten iḥewwasen Ilimaniyen jar 1904 d 1908.

Timura-nnsen d wulli-nnes ttwaḥewwsen minzi ttuɣa ca n wass kkren-d kunṭra i tḥewwast Talimant.

Aliman ixes zeɛma ad yenɛem s min ggin imezwura d min d-jjin d iyezzimen wer ttgenfin.

Maca qaɛ wer issiwel x weɛdal, amestfaq-nnsen ttuɣa-t ad wcen 1.1 melyar yuru ḥuma ad ɛawnen di tyumi n tmurt-a.

Ttmenyat-a ad tent-wcen x 30 iseggusa i wayyawen n Ovaherero d Nama.

Maca ayyawen-nnsen qqaren belli manaya d agernez. “nxes zzag-sen [ilimaniyen] ad zzag-neɣ ttren ssmaḥet. Ttmenyat-nnsen xsent ad inint zeɛma aqqa ggin tiɛuffna waha, d aya umi sellḥent”.

Ibedditen kunṭra i Fransa deg Wafrika.

Ca n wezgen n tmura n Wafrika, ttuɣa-tent adu uḥewwas Afransis. Waxxa teɛda settin iseggusa zeg wami teffeɣ Fransa, maca waxxa amenni ɛad aṭṭas n midden deg Wafrika ttacan s later i tejja Fransa awern-as.

Aseggas-a, Legzayer tessmeɣara s settin iseggusa zeg wami temneɛ timanit-nnes. Zegga tudef deg ijjen umseksi n tmenya iseggusa maḥend a tekkes aḥewwes n 130 iseggusa.

Fransa, am waṭṭas n tmura tikulunyaliyin, ttuɣa ttagint ad neɛment s ca n tmeslayin i yeggin deg wakud-nnsent akulunyali.

Deg yennayer n 2021, yenna usira n unessixef n Fransa, Emmanuel Macron belli Fransa wer tettetter ca “awadem” nnes x min tegga di Legzayer x 132 n iseggusa n uḥewwes.

Maca a tegg ca n tmeslayin-nniḍen maḥend a temsuluḥ aked tmurt-a.

Awerni ijjen useggas, itter uberlaman Afrnasis awadem zeg “iḥerkiyen” i ttuɣa yellan d lɛesker d Igzayriyen, udfen aked Fransa deg umseksi x timanit n Lezzayer.

Amaynu

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