19 juin , 2021

Tiɣri deg wamud n tezlawit Maryam Maryami: “Lall n tidet” (1/2)


Tamssizwarut:

D amezwaru, qbel ma a dd-nagem zi tcuni n min dd-yusin g wamud n tezlawit Maryam Maryami: «Lall n tidt», qbel ma a nefteḥ di min yeksi d udmawen n tufrayin, d tteswirin i zeg-neɣ iɛerrqen s taẓyuḍi d tcuni n wawalen ɣer yijj n umaḍal i di tesmun tezlawit aswaḍ-nnes ɣer Arif d twennaḍ-nnes, d min ɣer-s yeqqnen n umezruy d tdelsa d wayda (Patrimoine)…, Yeffuk a nedwel s yijj n usurif ɣer deffer maḥend a nessiwl cwayt x usefru di Arif di min yeɛdun, d wemkan n temɣart deg wesbeddi d wesluli n yezlan d tqessisin d weftal n wawalen iqaden. Zi ssenni, a neqqen min yeɛdun aked lexxu maḥend a newc ijj n tewlaft a zeg-s nessreɣ tifawin x tzemmar timeqqranin i tegga tezlawit Maryam Maryami g usufeɣ n udlis-a i yellan jer ifassn-nneɣ.
Qbel ma ad yemmutti usefru di Arif zeg usurs-nnes amiwan (oral) ɣer usurs amiray (écrit), asnflul n yezlan d tqessisin ttuɣa tettbedda awarn-as tmeṭṭut, amen ttuɣa tettbedda awarn i uɛawed n tḥuja. S manaya tettili temɣart d ijj n tmezgida tessɣura i yḥenjiren i dd-ittalin irimen (Expériences) n yewdan yeɛdun, tesnama-ten x tutlayt ḥuma ad teqqim tettwaksi x yilsawen (Qessuḥ.L & Zizawi.Ɛ 2006). 
S wedwal-nneɣ ɣer tudert tanamunt (Vie sociale) n temɣart tarifit, d mamk i ttuɣa tettedder tudert-nnes di taddart d yegran d tebḥirin, d tmeɣriwin i di ttuɣa tettili… Ssa i nezmer a neksi asneflul aseklan n temɣart deg yiger n yezlan.
S uya, a dd-idareɣ ijj n temsart, umi dd-tusa ijj n teɣtast (Décision) zi Muḥmmd n Ɛebdlekrim Lxeṭṭabi itteṭṭef zeg-s timɣarin ḥuma wer qqirent izlan (Aẓerwal.F 2013). Taɣtast-a wer das-teɛjib i temɣart tarifit, uca terra x-as s yezli-ya:

“A rebbi a t-tehdid, a danɣ-yewc ttesriḥ

A danɣ-yewc ttesriḥ, x lalla buya d cḍiḥ”

Zi ssa nettessen amkan i ɣer-s ɣer temɣart di tmenna d wesneflul n yezlan.

Zeg yewdan imezwura i yurin x usefru Arifi, dinn Samuel Biarnay, inna aqqa asefru n tidet ttuɣa-t d wenni i tteggent tniba d temɣarin tirifiyin, izlan-nnsent ttuɣa ccuren s buḥbel n Arif, minzi nitenti wer ttizzlent s usefru-nsent awarn i tenɛacin, amen tteggen imedyazen i ttuɣa yeqqaren izlan di tmeɣriwin ḥuma ad ṭṭfen tinɛacin; S uya, izlan n temɣart ttuɣa deg-sen tidet, minzi wer ten-teggi maḥend ad mmenzen (Biarnay.S 1916).
Maḥend ad sserɣeɣ tfawt mliḥ x usentl-a, a dd-idareɣ ijj n tenfust tesskan-aenɣ amkan i yellan ɣer temɣart deg wesluli n usefru di Arif, d min ttejjan yezlan-nnes n later deg wulawen n yewdan d twacunin.
Tanfust n “sebɛa n wawmatn”, ttuɣa-ten ɣer yemma-tsen merra d iwetman. Yuza ɣer-sen uyenni, minzi iqqrinen-nsen g teqbilt ttzawaren-ten, umi wer ɣer-sen weltma-tsen i x-asen dd-ɣa yinin izlan di tmeɣriwin.
Umi teksi yemma-tsen ddiset i twalat wiss tmenya, nnan-as: “aqqa neccin a neẓwa ɣer tewrirt-in arendad i taddart-nneɣ, malla d taḥenjirt ksi-dd taɛellamt d tacemlalt ḥuma a dd-nedwel, malla wer telli d taḥenjirt ksi-dd taɛellamt d taberkant, uca d wnni d abrid-nneɣ, ɛemmers teẓrid-anɣ, a netleɛ mani wer danɣ-yessin ula d ijj.”
Yemma-tsen tejja-dd taḥenjirt, maca tusem zeg-s ticent-nnes i ttuɣa wer ittirun, uca tuli ɣer tẓeqqa teksi taɛellamt d taberkant, lexdenni ugurn sebɛa-nni n wawmatn.
Umi temɣar weltma-tsen, tessen tidet n min yemsaren i ayetma-s, teffeɣ maḥend a x-asen terzu. Tiweḍ ɣer-sen, maca wer tessin belli d nitni, nitni wer tt-ssinen. Teqqim tettras ɣer-sen ileɣman. Minzi i dd-ɣa tban tidet-nnes: tuɣa kul tuffut tkessi deg yezlan d isebḥanen, ttadfen ɣer wul.
Zi tenfust-a, nettessen aqqa;

– Asneflul n usefru ittekk-dd zi temɣart.

– Amun (lmujtamaɛ) yeḥdaj tamɣart, d nettat d tamesneflult, d tanaẓurt… (Aẓerwal.F 2013)
Yemmutti usefru zeg usurs amiwan ɣer usurs amiray, s usufeɣ n wamud amezwaru di Arif: “ma tucid ak reḥriq inu” n Sellam Ssmɣini, asegg°as n 1992. Tmenya n isgg°usa awarn-as, uca a dd-ffɣen tnayen n imuden n temɣarin di twalat d ijjt, asgg°as n 1998, amud n Ɛica Busnina “ɛad a xaf-i trud”, d wamud n Faḍma Lweryaci “islemd-ayi wawal”. Lexxu dinn aṭṭas n tezlawiyin fsarent imuden-nnsent, am Ɛica Kurdi d Maysa Racida Lmerraqi d Ilham Amjahd, wer nettettu amud amaynu n Maryam Maryami, rni x-asen naɛima Farsi d Nur Aɛrab d tinneɣni… maca waxxa amenni ttɣimant tira n tmeṭṭut udrusent arendad i min dd-yessufeɣ wezlawi arifi, manaya ittɛaqqab ɣer waṭṭas n tɛenkrifin wer nezmir a x-asent nessiwel lexxu merra.

1- Lall n « lall n tidt»:

Nettat d Maryam Maryami, d ijjt zi tezlawitin n Arif i yeksin aṭṭas n imunas tesdewl-iten d awalen n usefru, i tessiweḍ i wegdud Arifi deg waṭṭas n yemsagaren i tteggent tmesmunin n tdelsa tamaziɣt di Arif, mamek ttuɣa yizwar-as tecrek deg wemsagar anamur i yettwaggen di temdint n Sefru.
Nettat, D taḥudrit teɣra g tseddawit, lexxu d tanesfart (txeddem di tfarmasit), waxxa amenni, wer tt-teṭṭif lxedmet-nnes maḥend ad tari asefru, ad terni isem-nnes ɣer yismawen n tezlawitin i das-yizwaren ɣer wazzerg n usefru d tira, am: Faḍma Lwryaci, Ɛica kurdi, Ɛica Busnina, Maysa Racida Lmrraqi d Ilham amjahd.
Traja tezlawit Maryam Maryami al 2016, ḥuma a dd-teslul ijj n wamud i di tesyedd tisumaḍ n wawalen ttuɣa tufes deg-sen taykitin-nnes, amud-a umi tixḍar azwel: “Lall n tidt”, I yellan d azwel n yijjt n tqessist zi tqessisin I deg-s yellan.
Lall n tidt, d amud n jjdid n tezlawit Maryam Maryami, tazazragt n “Rif d’impression di Lḥusima”. Tawlaft n uɣamus s ufus n unaẓur amsilɣ Ɛali Busettati, deg-s 123 n tasniwin. Deg-s 26 n tqessisin, d tmessizwarut tura-tt tezlawit s ufus-nns. 
Amud yusa-dd s tnayen n wudmawen n tira, ijj n wudem yura s usekkil alatini, udem nniḍen yura s usekkil n tfinaɣ.

2- Azwel n wamud

Azwl n wamud yusa-dd s tnayen n tguriwin: «lall» d «tidt», tiguriwin-a s tnayen idsent d tiwetmanin (Féminin), manaya nezmer a deg-s nɣer asnejbed n tezlawit ɣer tɣawsa n temɣart, d imenɣiten-nnes ḥuma ad taf tiseqqar-nnes. Tamɣart (lall) irezzun a ɣer-s tili tidet, ḥuma ad tili d “lall n tidt”.

3- Aswiẓẓeḍ ɣer yiḍennaḍ deg usefru n Maryam Maryami:

Tettɛaqqab tezlawit Maryam Maryami ɣer tenfas d tirart n zik d min deg-s tuɣa ittwaqqaren n wawalen, ḥuma a dd-tagem isental d tteswirin d uxarres yeqqnen s iẓewran, yeqqnen s tmektit tamgrut (ddakira ljamaɛyya) n wegdud.
teqqar tzlawit:

“Ixarres wuccn agerṭiṭ

A kid-s yeẓẓuɣɣer insi”

Nettaf da tetterra-aneɣ tezlawit akid-s ɣer tnayen n tenfas: tanfust n wuccen agerṭiṭ, d tenfust n wuccen d yensi umi udfen ɣer tebḥirt, uca ijj ittett ittqllab, ijj ittett waha, al umi wer yezmir ad yeffeɣ zeg wexbuc manis yudef. 
G tqessist:  «tanfust n nunja», nettaf tazlawit terḍel-dd timsarin n tenfust n Nunja i nessen, maḥend a x-as talem ijj n tenfust nniḍen teslul-itt-dd x yijj n tmeṭṭut tettemɛutrus aked wamẓiwen ḥuma ad teḥḍa agla n lejdud. 

Amen teqqar deg yezlan-a :

Nunja tfawt texsi x-as!

Usin-dd ɣer yiger-nnes,

D wagla ḥewwsen-as!

Nnan-as: “cemm d tagujilt

Manaya ma tzemred-as?”

Tubberkent deg wul

G wudem sfirnen ɣer-s!

Tenna-asen: “ffɣem, agg°jem…Agla n lejdud ḥeyydem-as!

A t-ḥḍiɣ s tiṭṭawin,

D waccaren d teɣmas”.

Nettaf ɛawed tazlawit tegga ijj n wedwal ɣer tenfust n temẓa i yeccin mmi-s, ḥuma a tt-tirḍ d arruḍ i yijjten zi tqessisin-nnes i di teqqar :

“Ayyeḥḥat x-am ayyeḥḥat,

A tamẓa n wexxam!

A ten imellyen s wajjiḍ 

Isewwken s wejdam

Man array-nneɣ akid-m?

Am sa n iregzam,

A ten yeccin tarwa-nnes

Tesyurid s uma-m!”

Zeg wudmawen n wedwal n tezlawit ɣer yiḍennaḍ, nettaf teɣellel-dd ula zi tirart n zik, i wer yeqqimn lexxu mɣar deg izellifen n yewdan i yeddren akud-nni. Teqqar tezlawit:

“Ggin afus g ufus

Ttazzlen ttiraren

Rida mida

Qenqeb zida

Cekk ffeɣ, cekk ffeɣ

Tsur Nunja…”

Mamek dd-tugem tezlawit zi tenfas d tirart n zik, tugem-dd ula zeg yinziten d wawalen i yettwannan zik, am:

“Agla-nneɣ d tareẓẓit n yiri-nneɣ”

“Min ggiɣ d taslit mani ɛad d tamẓurt”

“Wami xseɣ tammemt ad sebreɣ i tiqqest”

“Aɛeddis yejjiwnen wer ittxarres deg wenni yelluẓen”

«Mli ur xellfent ili neqqent»

«Tabuhalit mli wer ttarji ili temmut».
Mamek nettwala, merra iwalen-a n zik tegga-ten tezlawit d izewlen n tqessisin, min danɣ-itticcen ijj n tteswirt x tezlawit d wedwal-nnes ɣer wayda (Patrimoine) adelsan, ḥuma a zeg-s tessedder tiqssisin-nns, s yijj n umsawal wer ittmtti jer yiḍennaḍ d wass-a.

4- Amnus n uḥenjir ameẓẓyan g usefru n Maryam Maryami:

Mala ttuɣa tizwar Ɛica Busnina tefser ijj n wamud x iḥenjiren imeẓẓyanen asggas n 2011, azwel-nns: “Neccin d imeẓẓyanen”, nettaf ula d Maryam Maryami teksi amnus n uḥenjir ameẓẓyan di Arif, umi das-tura tnayen n tqessisin timezwura deg wamud: “Uccn d yensi”, d “Tafsut n iḥenjirn”. Tessexdem deg-sent tutlayt wer tulliɣ ca, ḥuma a kid-s yeḍfer uḥenjir asɣun n mani t-ttawi, ad yefhem iḍennaḍ-nnes, ad t-tessers deg yijj n wuɣun n tcuni n yizli aked wektay n iḍennaḍ.
Zeg isuɣad n tqessisin-a, Nettaf tazlawit tettexs ad yeqqim uḥenjir yessen tirart i ittwattun g wakud n tesmaḍalt i yeccin tadelsa n kul agdud, tejja-t iḍeffer ijj n tdelsa teqqen ɣer imassn n ttiknulujit. 
Terra ɛawed taynit tezlawit g tqessist-nnes: «Asurif amezwaru», i usegmi ameẓẓyan d mamek yeffuk ad yaf wi kid-s ɣa ibedden d wi t-ɣa yessegmen mliḥ maḥend ad yessurf s isuraf n unaruz ɣer yimal. Teqqar tezlawit g tqessist-nnes:

Yessurf usegmi

Yenḍer iḍaren

Yeḥruṭṭef zi tekli

Wer yufi wi t-id-ɣa-yeṭṭfen

Yexzar ɣer wagg°aj

D wi dinn ɣa yawḍen

D mani tella tawmat-nnes

D wi kid-s ɣa-ibedden

Yehwa-as-dd umeṭṭa

Wer yufi wi t-id-ɣa-yeṭṭfen.

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s