5 décembre , 2021

Rainer Maria Rilke: Azlawi yurin tiqessisin s tfeqqaε n dduniyt

Amaḍal-a nbenna-t,

Iweṭṭa,

Nettɛawad-as lebni,

Nweṭṭa necnin.

D tina d tiwalin i zi nzemmer a nemlussun aked Rainer Maria Rilke. Ameggaru-ya ilulen deg usegg°as n 1875 di temdint n Brag Tatcikit. Yettwassen s tsunsibilit-nnes (sensibilité) ɣer umaḍal i das-d-yunuḍen. Ttuɣa yettmetta xmi ittili weḥḥd-s. Taweḥdanit ittaf dag-s riqqi-nnes. Zegga iwweḍ ad issen ila wer izemmer ad yedder di jjmaɛet, inna aked yiman-nnes ad yidder tudert n uɛezzeb, tudert tabuhimit ibedden xef usefru d tẓuri. Rilke issiwel deg isefra-nnes x isental (des sujets) msebḍan qqnen ɣer tudert-nnes d mayen dag-s isseɛda netta.

Maca s minzi nesferraz Rilke urid umi issiwel x tudert-nnes, maca x « mamec » i x-as yura. Ibedd x ijjen lxezrat d tafilusuft wer tzemmer ad tewqa (ad tenqaḍa). Yura x tmeẓi, timexsa, aẓuyyet, asitem, lekruhiyyet, taweḥdanit, tiddukla d tmettant. S uyenni nettaf iwalen iqqnen ɣer yiger n « uẓuyyet, tamettant d tweḥdanit » ggin ḥala di lexdayem n weẓlawi-ya. Ula kter di tira-nni nnes i yura di temẓi-nnes. Aya yeqqen ɣer ca n tmeslayin qesḥent idder-itent wezlawi-nneɣ di temẓi-nnes: Am lmewt n uma-s ameqqran, ufuɣ-nnes zi ssekwila n lɛesker, allaf n baba-s d yemma-s. Maca tifeqqaɛ-nni ig idder ufint ufuɣ-nnsent di lxedmet i yura « Tiwessanin n Malte Laurids Brigge » (Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge). Manaya iwwec-as ijjen uḥadi d amaynu i tira-nnes. Yegg°ej x tira-nni issemɣaran s mayen illan d aliman d yeẓrinamur (nationaliste). Din d ijjen uḥadi nniḍen i zi nzemmer a naka zi tira-nnes xmi nettaf tubberkent i yeqqnen ɣer layas d tigg°da, min xef ig ittgerniz ca n twalatin ccatent ɣer wul, snhezzant buḥbel..  

Taẓuri d aɣbal n waẓẓli

Wer nzemmer a nettu belli Rilke netta d ijjen wezlawi, umi itteɛjib aṭṭas taẓuri. Tteɛjiben-as ikuluriten n telwiḥin d warctiktur (architecture). Kter zi manaya ittmetta x wemsal (Sculpture). D tidet i ɣa nini mala nessen ila Rilke netta imessel tiqessisin-nnes. Irezzu ad yerr mayen yellan di berra, d ca n ixarrisen d izumal d ipsiciken. Ittegg tizemmar-nnes ḥma ad yejj mayen nettwala di berra, d mayen nettxayal ila yella, d ca n izumal n usefru. Manaya ittegg-it s umi nzemmer a nini « asefru n leḥwayej » (Dinggedicht ).

Tasejjart ɣer Rilke urid d tasejjart waha, maca nettat d asitem d tmexsa d tudert amen tekmel. Uca ittraḥ akid-s amenni aked leḥwayej i yellan deg umaḍal, d ikuluriten xminni ttbeddalen aked ubeddel n imiren (saisons) d mayen yeqqnen ɣar ugama (nature).

Iqqim a nini ila tira-nnes tterrant taynit aṭṭas i lexdayem n wemsal. Ittxes ad day-sent issuḍ tudert nniḍen. D aya ig igga aked MichaelAngelo d umessal Afransis Auguste Rodin. Uca Maḥend ad yemsel Rilke tiqessisin-nnes ittekkes zi tmeslayin (des sujets) anaw-nnsent (leurs types) iressan itterra-tent ɣer timyiwan (des unités) tteggent anya (rythme), nettaka zzag-sent, llant di tilit (existence). Maḥend ad yaweḍ ɣer manaya issezdag ixef-nnes (Akaṭarsis) zeg imxumbal n tnefsiyt d min t-iceɣlen deg uxarres ɣer ijjen tebridt n tẓuri. Uca ittic-as i wayenni-nnes animan (indépendant) tilelli-nnes. Maḥend ad issiwel, ad yari s tlelli. S ijjen wawal nniḍen, netta ittɛawad ittari x « leḥwayej » ig illan deg umaḍal s ict tebridt d tarewsant (neutre).

Timessna n yixef

S tmessna n ixef-nneɣ i zi nzemmer a nessuref ixef-nneɣ i iɣeḍsen di tfeqqaɛ, ammu ig ittwala Rilke. Ad nessen ddat-nneɣ niɣ ad t-nɛerra. Uca ad t-nesseqqeḍ (incarner) s waẓẓli. Am mamec yegga Ufilisuf Nietzsche i yeksin zi Rilke tira-nnes timezwura. Ameɣunj Agriki Orpheus d netta zeg imezwura i yexsen ad iɛawed yari ixef-nnes x webrid n yezlan-nnes i zi ttuɣa ittggezzen ula x imettinen ḥuma ad dag-sen issuḍ tudert-nniḍen. Nettaf Rilke iksi-d isem-nnes yegg-it d azwel n ijjen lxedmet-nnes « tisunatin n Orpheus » (Sonette an Orpheus). I yegga x teflewt n wemḍal n ijjen tmecḍaḥt Vira Knoppe i yemmuten x tseɛṭac n iseggusa. Ta i ttuɣa t-isfekkaren s weltma-s immuten qbel ma ad d-ilul netta. X uyenni yemma-s ttuɣa txezzer ɣer-s axmi d aseqqeḍ (incarner) yeddren n wetlm-as, ttuɣa tessiriḍ-as qqaɛ arruḍ n weltma-s qbel ma ad yadef ssekwila n lɛesker.

Lagg°aj afilusuf n usefru

Di beddu n tudert-nnes Rilke ttuɣa tetteɛjib-as tafilusuft n tiẓrilit (Existentialisme) am tenni n Nietzsche d Kierkegaard, ttuɣa isxeddam timenna-nnes d tiwalin n Ufilusuf-a Adenmarki. Maca lexdayem n Rilke urid ssawalent ɣir x usmedya n teẓrilit waha. Maca lexdayem-nnes ssiwlent x tmeslayin d timeqqranin ameknaw ddin, pulitik, tagrawla tapulitikt d ubeddel anamun (changement social). Maca zi tefras timeqqranin i yellan di min yura. Min xef qqaren belli zi mayen ittwarun di Tlimant d ameqqran zi leqrun inammasen, netta d « tiṭikt » nni i yexsen ad yerr zi tsekla d ijjen ddin ibedd x tmexsa. Timexsa ɣer Rilke teqqar ila bnadem ixess wer ittɣecci bu ixef-nnes ḥma ad yeɛjeb i wenn/tenn igg ittxes. Maca itterra zi tmexsa d ca n ḥajet tulleɣ, temɣer deg wul-nnes d teycatin-nnes ḥma ad d-yass aked tmexsa-nnes. Di twalat d icten ad yejj ixef-nnes amec yella, d animan x uwenniḍen. Timexsa ɣer-s acnaw buḥber xminni itteffi/issffay, issdal yenniḍen waxxa qaɛ wer t-ttren. Ddegg-a n tmexsa takucant tettetter tarezzut x wakuc di ddat tanefgant ig irezzun lebda x ifessayen di ddat-nni i nettxes lebda, tenn issenḍyen i nettxayal s takayt-nneɣ d tmiṭafizikt. Manaya ixes ad yini ɛawed ila ixess a nennufsel zeg isekraf n tmurt d inni inamunen (sociales), amek i nfehhem zi tira n Rilke.

Yuḍen Rilke s uxenzir n idammen, llukimiya, immut deg usegg°as n 1926 di ddcar n Val Monte x tma n ugelmam n Juniv.    

Amaynu

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