8 août , 2021

Miguel Hernandez: Tala n tqessisin i yuẓɣen di leḥbusat n Franco

Ilul Miguel Hernández di Orihuela, jjihet n Alicante deg useggas n 1910. Ittwaḥsab zeg izlawiyen imeqqranen i yellan di Spaniya.

Imɣer Miguel deg ijj n lwacun dag-s sebɛa n wawamten, tlata zzag-sen mmuten ɛad d imeẓẓyanen ; isseɛda Miguel Hernández temẓi-nnes d wawaḍ-nnes jer temzyida n tɣuri d tḥimmart n wulli n baba-s.

Ila iqqar bezzaf, waxxa baba-s ila iḥegger-it, ittemsurruf akid-s ijjen d tebridt d taɛeffant (wer ɣer-s d-yusi ca a t-iẓer xminni ɣa ittxed ijjen ɛecrin iseggusa menbeɛd).

Deg wakud-nni aquḍaḍ i yekka di tɣuri, immelqa aked José Marin Gutiérrez umi ttlaɣan Ramon Sijé, i ɣa yiraren ijjen tilalt d tameqqrant di tudert-nnes menbeɛd.

Wami iwweḍ 14 iseggusa, ttuɣa ixess-as ad iffeɣ zi temzyida n tɣuri bac ad iɛawen baba-s. Waxxa amenni, imezran-nnes iḍḍuqquẓen ɣer tsekla d usefru, nedhen-t ḥuma ad isseɛda aṭṭas zeg wakud-nnes di tesdlist (bibliothèque), d netta ayenni ittakk°aḍ iqqar idlisen n imariten imeqqranen n tsekla Taspanyut, ameknaw Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca…

Hernández amenni isiɣa iqqar bla ma a t-isselmed ḥedd, ifser deg useggas n 1929 taqessist-nnes tamezwarut deg ij n uɣemmis i d-ittefɣen kul simana n temdint n Orihuela umi qqaren El Pueblo. Ɛawed, mamec ifsar di El Dia n Alicante.

Deg useggas n 1932, ad dag-s iraḥ di twalat tamezwarut ɣer Madrid, bla ma ad dag-s igg ca n lḥajet d tameqqrant. Maca di twalat tis sant i dag-s ɣa irzef ad immelqa din aked Pablo Neruda d Vicente Aleixandre.

Deg unebdu n useggas n 1936, umi i teḍḍuqqez girra Taspanyut, ad inneḥmez Miguel Hernández ɣer tma n ijumhuriyen aked Icuyuɛiyen n Spaniya, iwta acbar la d netta x Madrid d Wandalus.

Deg wass n 09 mars 1937 yewwya Josefina Manresa, yelli-s n ubilaj-nnes, akid-s d-ijj ijjen uḥenjir ad immet qbel i lweqt deg useggas di 1938, Miguel yura i mmi-s a wa tqessist n « aḥenjir n tfawt d tallest », mamec i d-yuru Manuel, di 1939.

Deg unebdu n 1937, icrec deg ukungris wis tnayen n imariten Imgalifaciyen (inni illan kunṭra i Ifaciyen).

Di 1939, Franco inna belli girra tsala, Hernandez ixes ad yirwel zi Spaniya ɣer Portugal, maca ittwaṭṭef deg yegmiren zeg ipulisen ipurtgaliyen, sellmen-t i Guardia Civile. Xenni, sekken-t ɣer waṭṭas n leḥbusat, dag-sen i yura ca zi tqessisin-nnes ula kṭer di leḥbes i yesseɛda di Sibiya (Séville).

Di mars n 1940, ḥekmen x-as s lmewt, awern-as ɛawed wcin-as 30 iseggusa n leḥbes. Maca laṭṭa ilqef azlawi-ya di tarut, ar mani immut ass n 1942. Xenni tamɣart-nnes Josefina Manresa d mmi-tsen ddren deg ijjen ẓẓleḍ.

Hernandez ma zeg ayt n 36 ma zeg ayt n 27

Aṭṭas n twalatin netteqqen Hernández ɣer tasalt n 36, maca waxxa amenni din i t-isselsaqen aked taslat n 27 (i di yella Garcia Lorca, Vicente Aleixandre d Luis Cernuda). Nferrez Miguel x inniḍen umi wer d-ikki ca netta zi tburjwazit mamec wer isseɛdi bu ca n usmuttg d akadimi.

Aṭṭas n tqessisin-nnes igga-asent llɣa Paco Ibanez. Taqessist n Tindalusin n Jean tedwel d izli kunṭra ayt bab n tbeḥḥar n zzitun i ittẓemman tidi n ixeddamen.

Ijjen umursu zi tqessist-nnes iqqar :

Au n ddcar ikessi-ayi

Mala mmuteɣ, jj-ayi ad mmteɣ

D uzellif iɛulla ɣer ujenna.

D amettin d ɛecrin n twalatin d amettin,  

D rrbiɛ deg uqemmum,  

Ad yili tteɣẓaẓeɣ tiɣmas  

D nnec ttadiɣ tamart,

D nnec ttɣennjeɣ ttrajiɣ lmewt

Aqqa din ijj n weji ittɣennej

X leklayeṭ

Di lwesṭ n imseksiten.

Ejj akumunṭir

Ari akumunṭir
Ari da isem

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s