17 octobre , 2021

Taɛanṣart, lɛada d tamaziɣt tettlaɣa dd x ayt d suyt bab ins

Asmaa Aouattah

Tafaska ya d min ɣrs  iqqnen ttggn tt g tmura n Tmazɣa. Smman tt tɛanṣart (din wi tt ittsmman tacɛɛalt niɣ crrḥ mllḥ). Ur nssin manis dd ikka wawal a, imkn ad yili d aɛrab niɣ d aɛibri, maca ntta iwta aẓwar ins gi tutlayt tamaziɣt. Aṭṭaṣ n inumak (lmɛani) i d as ittwawcn i tɛanṣart. Din wi tt ittrran ar umyi (mythe) niɣ ar ddin, din wi tt ittrran ar tudrt n iwdan izdɣn Tamazɣa d wagrakal (méditerranée).

Tiqbbal n Arrif n lkambu ɛad tddr ɣrsnt gi twngimt, ɛad ttbddan ɣrs xmi dd ittas wass ins, zgsnt taqbilt n Ibqquyn, mani ssqsiɣ. Din wi iqqarn qa tɛanṣart tus dd zi tnenni n lxuḍrt (tɛɛnṣr tazart= twwḍ). Ḥdd nnɣni iqqar qa ism a yusa dd zi Sara, ijjt n tmɣart d tudayt tɣdr lqum ins skmḍn tt. Kul asggwas tbddan ɣr twngimt ins. Tettɣima lɛada a d ijjtn zi tfaskiwin ittwaggn gi waṭṭaṣ n tmura n Tmazɣa, maci ɣir g Arrif. Ssnen tt marra aydudn n yilel agrakal zi zik n zik. Amya i dd wwint trzzutin d twngimin n ywdan.

Immi Tɛanṣart?

Tirzzutin i ittwaggn x tɛanṣart kssin tt idd d ijjt n tfaska tsskan tɣuni n yiwd amaziɣ ar tmurt d ugama (ṭṭabiɛa) d umṣawaḍjr asn. Tina d drust zi tɣuriwin min ɣr wwḍn imrzutn:

– Duti iqqar gi manaya « Tafaska ya (…) tqqn ar muk ittwala iwd n zid timslayin d ugama ». Ijj n uxzzar ibna x uwqqar d amqqran i ugama d umtawi akids x tmuwca n wa i wa. Amṣawaḍ a ur ittqid bla lqaɛida ins.

– Marra tifaskiwin timaziɣin izgurn ddin qqnent ar umṣdfar n tsmhuyin (saisons) n usggwas. Amuti zi ta ar tnnɣni ur ittili s usɣdi, ittili s lqaɛida ins mizi aṣurf ar tsmhut d tamaynut d ijjt n tmslayt tmɣar s uɣir ad ɣrs bddn ḥuma ad tɛda mliḥ ad tuc lɣillt d taṣbḥant. Taɛanṣart tettas dd g wakud n unqlb n tfuyt tanbdut, manaya ittwaḥsab d ijjt n twwurt ttadfn zgs iwdan ar unbdu amuk illa unqbl n tfuyt tamwant d tawwurt n wadaf ɣr tjrst. S uya i ittsmma Jan Sirbyi tifaskiwin n ynnayr d tɛanṣart « tiwwura n usggwas » .

– Tifaskiwin am tɛanṣart ttasnt idd ɛawd ḥuma ad qqnent tawwurt n ijj n lmusm gi tfllaḥt, ad rẓmnt wnnɣni. Tɛanṣart tettas dd ag tikkst n tmgra d uṣrwt. S uynni, tudf gi tswast (calendrier)tafllaḥt i ttḍfarn ar yiḍ a imzdaɣ n tmzaɣa. Sirbyi iṣṣawaḍ anɣ dd muk ssunuḍn ifllaḥn d tfllaḥin icɣlan nsn, n tmurt, s tiggwdi d uḥbabi ḥuma ur d asn dd ttkknt tmukrisin g ubrid. Manaya ila ttggn t zdat ad dd iban ddin. Zi ssin tsawnt udfnt gi tfaskiwin d tidyyanin amaknaw tɛacurt d lɛid amqqran, amuk d as tmsar i tɛanṣart ag ddin amasiḥi. Atiɣ ila gi zik d tafaska d tafukant n ywdan iɛbbdn tfuyt, ag wakud tdwl tqqn ar ci nnɣni. Nssn illa lqaɛida n waman d tmssi nttaf itn gi waṭṭaṣ n imurn n usggwas (Innayr, tɛacurt, lɛid amqqran, ..). Manaya ad ixs ad yini x yiri n Imil Laust illa lqaɛida n tmssi ur iqqim gi sbiɣt ins tamzgarut.

Min ttggn gi tɛanṣart?

Din kraḍ n tmslayin tbna xsn tɛanṣart: aman, timssi d ddxxan, issitim zzgsnt iwd amaziɣ asizdg/asird, aḥḍay d uḥawl.

Aman: aman n tɛanṣart ɣrs ccan imɣar ar iwdan mizi issirid, isgnfa. S uynni, ulabudd ad ssirdn muk ma: s waman n yilel, n iɣzr niɣ gi lɛnaṣar d taliwin. Maca ttɣiman waman n tmurt ḥsn mizi kkin dd zi tɛddist. Aman n tɛanṣart ssiridn zi kulci min ur iknin: aṭṭan, tasɛdit taɛffant (lɛks), tuɛufna, … Amuk ttksn ula d tiggwdi. Ag tuffut, iwdan d lmal ttawin abrid ar waman huma ad iridn, ad dd luln zi jjdid. Lɛada n usird yidar itt idd San Agustin x imaziɣn n Zwara (Libya) xmi ttggn tafaska n Awussu, irwsn aṭṭaṣ gi tɛanṣart, maca gi ṣṣmaym. Din wi iqqarn qa d tafaska d ijjtn waxxa tmṣwḍa g wakud.

Timssi: Ssruɣan iwdan timssi mani ma gi tɛanṣart, gi tmdinin niɣ gi ldcur, gi tɣmriwin niɣ g izurag d innarn. Nṭtwn tt s umẓyan s tmqqrant ḥuma ad tn tḥḍa zi min tsnuffr tudrt. Gi ci n tmura tigrakalin, ttssiyyabn gi tmssi min iṣṣnɛatn ar tmukrisin d takayin tiɛffanin, ttskkan gs isitimn nsn ttrajan t ad ikmḍ. Laust iqqar anɣ qa ayt/suyt Ida Azdut ttsiyyabn aẓru gi tmssi qqarn « ɣifl gim kullu ma ittrtn ». Gi Ntifa, ssruɣan timssi zdat i tudrin anct n waddud n wargaz, sscan as ixccabn n tzggwart yuzzɣn. Irgazn nṭṭwn tt kraḍ n twalatin, kssin gi tmnna « ad nḍwɣ timssi a amuk tt ɣa nḍwɣ asggwas i dd iggurn ». Timɣarin, am iwssura, ttrajant ad tudrus ḥuma ad tt nḍwnt s iḥrmun g uɣil. Taffa n tmssi ttsmman tt tafggirt, qqarn qa tkki dd zi tlatint (foguera). Tettwassn amya ɣr ayt/suyt Zmmur ɛla ḥsab Laust.

Ddxxan: ssxdamn ddxxan n tɛanṣart i ugnfi d usitm n lxir. Ddxan n tfggirin niɣ n iɛcbucn ttbxxarn zgs i tsklutin d lksibt. Xlli d iwdan slqqan ddat nsn i ddxxan, ktar ci imẓyanen d tmẓaynin. Ttskkan t ar jjiht n tbḥirin d imrjɛiwn ikrzn. Timlli n tmssi ula d nttat s lbaraka ins gi tɛanṣart. X wawal n Idmund Duti, dg Arrif, ttḥnnakn zgs tamzurt. Ayt d suyt Arrif i ssqsiɣ nnan qa iwdan ila ttcarn jjuf nsn s ddxxan n tɛanṣart ḥuma ad ilin mliḥ. Amuk iqqar Laust qa gi Zmmur iwdan sɛddan ikrarn nsn x ddxxan ḥuma ad zgsn yili, ttslqan as ula d iwdan tiṭṭawin nsn i ugnfi zg waṭṭan i tnt ittlqafn.

Taɛanṣart n jjmaɛt d lfraḥt

Macca issxdamn iwdan gi tɛanṣart  (gi marra Tamazɣa) tettwagg s tquqay iitwamjrn g usggwas nni ag lɛds d lḥimẓ iwwan g waman. Ttsmman tt imcyax niɣ imciyyxn.  Ulabudd ad qqasn zi lɣillt tamaynut gi tfaskiwin ḥuma ad snimmrn i ugama lxir ins. « Macca n tudrt rid d macca waha, nttat s unamk ins ». Anamk ittawin ar waqqan n yiwd ag tmurt d ugama. « Timssi d tillgwit jr n yiwd d tfuyt iṣbḥn d lɣillt n tmurt. Ḥuma ad idum umsfham a, afllaḥ ittqas zi lɣillt tamaynut ». Gi tɛanṣart ifllaḥn ssagaln ddukar i lɣrus mizi ttamnen ila d wnni d akud i kids dd ittasn.

Bla manaya d manayin, tɛanṣart tettwag i lfraḥt d udaḥi s tudrt. S uya i d as iqqar Laust i tmssi ins, timssi n lfraḥt « Imaziɣn n lmɣrib ṭṭfn gi lɛada taqdimt n unskkr n tmssi amuk d as ttggn ifllaḥn n Fransa d Uruba xmi tettnqlab tfuyt n unbdu, umi qqarn san Jan ». Lfraḥt a tettili ag jjmaɛt s unḍaw n tmssi, lɣnuj d ccḍih. Ur ntettu aḥnnk n taẓult ittwaggn s uɛqqa n lmcmac zi ɣa ikmḍ gi tgffirt.

Lɛada ya twdḍr zi tudrt nnɣ s tmgga n icnga n tmagit tamaziɣt d tudrt ibnan x lfraḥt. Iwdan ttun tt niɣ snɛmiln ttun tt, rran g umkan ins min dd yusin zi brra. Maca wi ixsn tadlsa ins, izmmr ad tt idd isddr xlli tettwantu s wadday n ukal.

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