26 juillet , 2021

MULAY MUḤEND d taryazt ad teqqim i lebda

Yura-t : Ridouan Pakhrou

Ass-a 6 febrayer ad tiri εdun 58 iseggasn xef tmettant n ijen weyrad d Arifi d ameqqran, ayrad-a xef ssiwlen-t  Marra lgnus n ddunect, εad ssawalen xaf-s, εad a xaf-s ssiwlen, a xaf-s arin, a xaf-s inin abarru d timenna.

Aked tuffut n wass n setta febrayer 1963 yefsar arradiyu n » ṣawt lεarab » aneɣmis n tmttant n ijjen wargaz d ameqqran, ɣar-s amcan-nnes di tmura n ẓelmeḍ Tafriqit, d tmizar usammar anammas, mammec ɣer-s amcan yemɣar jar wayduden irelliyyen. Argaz-a d memmis n ssi Ɛebdekrim Arifi, netta yettewassnen jar Irifiyen s umɣar « Mulay Muhend ».

Min yeεna Muḥemmed n Ɛebdekrim lxeṭṭabi ?

Ssi Ɛebdekrim lexţţabi « Refqi » izeddeɣ deg ujdir n Arrif amerwasu zzat i tegzirt n Nnekur.  Aseggas n 1882 ad ɣar-s yemmarni ijjen usegmi ixḍar-as zeg ismawen, isem n «  MUḤEMMED ».  Asggwas xaf-s d-yusin ad ydwel d rqadi di teqbilt n Ayt Waryaɣel x ufus n rmexzen n Fas, manaya yejja twacunt n Ayt d Lxeṭṭabi a ɣer-s tiri ijjen rhimmet d ijen uweqqar yemɣar jar tarwa n teqbilt-nnes. Mani ttuɣa tɣuri n Lxeṭṭabi ? Mani d mindi yexdem qber ma ad yerẓem amenɣi xef uḥewwas ? Mammec yegga yebna tayduda n Arrif ?  Mammec yesseεdu min das-yeqqimen di tudart ar tmettant-nnes di Lqahira ?

Mulay muḥend d baba‑s

Tudart n Mulay Muḥend

Zeg wami d-yerzem Muḥemmed n Ɛebdekrim lexţţabi tiţţawin-nnes ɣer tudart, ymṣadaf aked waţţas n tessasin d imunas. Marra manaya ad daneɣ-yejj  ad nebḍa tudert n Mulay Muhend xef krad n tsurifin. Azgen amezwaru (1882-1918), day-s temẓi, d tɣuri deg Ujdir, d Fas, d Mritc, d tawwuri di Mritc aked weɣmmis n tiligrama. Cwayt d rqadi d amssuɣel n tɣawsiwin Irifiyen d yemslmen n Mritc. Azgen wiss ssin (1918-1926) ad day-s nssiwel xef twasit n Mulay Muḥend ɣer ujdir. D mammec tebda tnezbayt Tarifit kuntra n uḥewwas, tayduda n Arrif. Azgen wiss krad (1926-1663) ad dag-s ssiwleɣ xef usufeɣ-nnes zi Arrif  ɣer Tegzirt n Larinyun, asmutti-nnes  ɣer Misra, d tmettant- nnes di Lqahira.

Mulay Muḥend zeg Ujdir ɣer Fas d Mritc, tiɣuri d tawuri (1882-1918)

 Yesseεdu temẓi-nnes jar yeqqrinen-nnes, maca ntta d mmis n ict twacunt ɣer-s ifassen zi rebda deg iyyar n tɣuri d tussniwin, d ddin. Manaya ad as-yarẓem  tawwurt  ḥuma ad yadef ɣer temzyida ad yessen timzwura n tira d tɣuri di ddecar-nnes. Ass aked wnneɣni Muḥend n ssi Ɛebdekrim, yreqqeḥ yedwer d aɣeddu, aseggas n 1902 ad yeksi aqerab -nnes ɣer Fas ad ikemmer tiɣuri-nnes di temzyida n iεeṭṭariyen, yekka dini 2 iseggasn ad idwer ɣer Ujdir di 1904 ḥuma ad yiysi amnus aked baba-s. 1906 ad yedwer ɣer Fas ad isiɣa di tɣuri di tmzyida n Lqarawyyin.

Deg useggas amezwaru bdant-id tmukrisin n Buteɣyult aked ujedjid n Σbereεziz. Ixarres ssi Ɛebdkrim aked yixef-nnes yufa ixessi-it ad ymεawan aked Uspanyu, s uya ysesek tarwa-nnes (Muḥmmed, d Mḥemmed) siɣin tiɣuri  tendint n Mritc deg ussan imeggura n 1906. Cwayt, ad ydwel d aselmad n tutlayt n Tmaziɣt d Taεrabet i tarwa n Imeɣrabiyen, war dini min yekka yessenta tira deg uɣemmis n «  Tiligrama del rif». Awarn-as yedwel d amsuɣel aked lbiru n tɣawsiwin n yemselmen, qber ma ad yḍeḥa d rqaḍi asggas n 1910. Ar danita amsawaḍ aked uspanyu εad yizdig. Maca deg useggas n 1914 wami yessenta umenɣi amaḍlan amzwaru (première guerre mondiale) Isppunya war dasen-ye3jib rḥar rami arrin taynit i memmis n umddukel-nsen.  Tixarrisin n mmis n Ɛbdekrim d uɣwweɣ-nnes s tira aked uɣezdis wiss tnayen deg umenɣi amaḍelan, zi twwurt n Iεutmaniyen d Uliman mani yjebbed, ad yejj Aspanyu ad as-yekkes tilelli n wawal, ad t-issidef ɣer leḥbes am yijj unekraf d asertan (prisonnier politique) deg uyur n cutanbir 1915, mani ɣa twaḥbbes ar uyur n ɣuct 1916.

– Wikimedia Commons

Tilelli tzdeɣ aked utarras, zeg wass n trarit, ca bnadem ad yesɣuy maḥend ad yeddar d irelli niɣ ad yesqar ad yeqqim d ismeɣ. Deg wakud di ttuɣa Muḥemmed n ssi Ɛbdekrim d aneḥbus deg ubniq n Mlilet yxarres ad senni yerwel, deg ijen djiret zi djyari tiziyrarin n tejrest 1915, yeqqen ijen wesɣun maḥend a xaf-s d yeḍḍar s nnej n tzeqqa, deg wass-nni s yexf-nes mani ɣa yennufsel wesɣun-nni ad yewḍa memmis n ssi Ɛbdekrim ad yarreẓ zeg uḍar-nnes aẓelmaḍ.

Danita lxezrat n Uspanyu ɣer twacunt n Lxeṭṭabi ad tbeddel, deg wakud d ijjen, Ɛbdekrim Lxeṭṭabi ameqqran, ad yaf ixf-nnes jar wefḍis Irifiyen d imydi n ispunya, irifiyen twalan-t d amεawen n uḥewwas yessentan ittacren igelwan n Arrif (xef manaya Irifiyyen ad suggeen xef taddart-nnes ad tskemḍen ca n 2 n twalatin), zeg uɣezdis  nniɣen  yxezzer ɣer-s s ict n ṭiṭṭ war day-s tiddukla n ceḥar uya, memmis yellan s Mlilet yerni tuffet ubedjaε s min ytteg. Maca aked wenfarar n umenɣi amaḍlan asggas n 1918 ad irwweḥ ɣer tmurt-nnes s ijen ccan d taryast temɣar, mani ɣa terẓem twacunt n ssi Ɛbdekrim ict  ttefryet nniɣen  n umenɣi aked Spanya tamedduklet n yiḍnnat.

Garra n Arrif tameqqrant, tagzirt n larinyun (1918-1926)

Deg uyur ameggaru zeg useggas n 1918 mani yedwer Muḥmed memmis n ssi εebdkrim ɣer wjdir, aspanyu ttuɣa yssares ifassen-nnes xef waṭṭas n imucan zi Arrif, ktar imucan yudsen Mritc, danita ɣer yeffeɣ baba-s n Mulay Muhend ad ikemmer abrid n tnezbayt yessenta qber nnes « Ccerif Muḥemmed Ameẓyyan ». Asggas n 1920 qber ad yemmet ssi Ɛebdekrim awaren ma ad as-ggen arhaj di Tfarsit, ysmun-d xaf-s tarwa-nnes (Mḥemmed ttuɣa yellan di Madrid, d Muhmmed ttuɣa yellan di Mritc) yennas-n :« mala war tzmirem ad twtem aqerṭas xef Arrif d tesɣart-nnes xzaret manis ɣa tekkem »

Mmis n umɣar, awren i tmettant n baba-s yuffu-d ɣer-s sin n yebriden war ɣer-s bu ktar, ad yegg min das-yenna baba-s niɣ ad yesmun reḥnuḍ-nnes. Deg uyur n cutanbir yewweḍ ad yegg « Agraw n ymzuren » mani yesmun imeqqranen n teqbilelt-nnes, d ssi Bulḥehya Utuzin, maḥend ad tsmuned ayt Weryaɣel ɣer yedja attas d imxumbar jar-asen-d d tmenɣiwin, yettxiss-a cek ad tiri-d d ameɣar d mmis n wemɣar.

Deg ugraw-a ywweḍ Mulay muḥend aked Irifiyen ɣer wawal «  ad nmun niɣ ad nraḥ nmun », ad nettu merra min ttuɣa yellan n tmukrisin d yemxumbar, mamc wḍen ad wcen rεahed, Arifi ɣer yenɣen umas ad ixdjes timezwura d tmeggura. Awerna-s yettwaxleq ijen unammas ( centre) deg udrar n lqamet yellan deg teqbilt n Temsaman, maḥned a ɣer-s tnegrawen yemɣaren n tqbilin tirifiyin.  Ad rzun xef ufuɣ (solution) aked uḥewwas Arumi .  Deg umelqi n lqamet smunen irifiyen awal nsen maḥend ad ggen Muḥemd n ssi Ɛebdekrim d amɣar xaf-sen.

 Anebdu n 1921 tewweḍ tnezbayt Tarifit ad tessemmer i wḥewwas arumi xef yttbedda  «Silvestry » mcehal sggwan irifyyen, d tamzwarut wyen suggen xaf-sen deg umenɣi n « Dhar uberran », ass amezwaru zeg uyur n yunyu 1921,  di 17 yulyuz ad asen-ggen ict tehiyyat nniɣen deg uraq n «  iɣriben ». Maca ticti tamqqrant ad tili  awern kkuẓ n wussan di 21 yulyuz 1921, deg ijn umnenɣi rcmen-t imjahden irifyyen s wattas d taryaat, amenɣi ɣer ytwasnen deg umezruy s umenɣi n « anwal », amenɣi-a qqaren xaf-s imarzzutn n umzruy belli irifiyen nɣin day-s jar 14 n ruruf d 16 n ruruf n iεskaryyen isppunya, d mani ssarsen fus-nsen x wattas n rebraqi, d uqartas, d leklayţ,… amenɣi- ttuɣa-t d ict tecti tameggarut i silvistre ttuɣa yeqqaren s tɣuyyit belli drust n wussan ad sweɣ atay di taddart n Mulay Muḥend deg Ujdir, ɣar unggar yenɣa yexf-nnes s tfeqqeεt awarni ma yeswa ibeccicen-nnes ar mani yuḥḥel.

Deg useggas n 1923 ameɣar n Arrif yewwed ad yssres ddsas n teyduda (République) n arrif. Ass awaren wnneɣni arrif ytbedda x iḍarn-nnes, manaya war das-ytteεjib ca ywḥewwas asppanyu wara d afransis, ktar rami irifiyen rezmen timessi xef lεeskar n yfransisen zeg uɣezdis n wadday (Sud) d umalu (Est) n Arrif.

Manaya ad yejj afransis d uspanyu ad smunen array-nsen ad ttun imenɣan jar-asen. Ass n 25 yunyu 1925 tsinya fransa d spanya amestfaq n wemεawan ḥuma ad qḍan xef tnezbayt tarifit.

 Deg ktubar 1925 yssenta uḥewwas aspanyu d ufransis, ad suggen xef arrif zeg ujenna d lebḥar d tmurt maḥend ad arren ticti i tnezbayt n arrif, zzay-s qqimen ccaten ɣer rswaq d yegrawn n iḥenjiren imezzyanen d ttemɣarin s arhaj (ipirita,lfusfur, lxardel…), Irifyen tmettan am zzbib, tanzbayt war tufi min ɣar tteg aked tyyarat ytfarraɣen timessi d icuḍaḍ zeg ujenna. S uya εad nhara irifyen tnqetmaren aked lehlak n uxenzir (cancer). Manaya ad yej  Mulay Muḥend ad yeksi acenyal acemlal  deg ujenna di 23 mayyu 1926, ass 27 zeg uyur s yexf-nnes Mmis n ssi εbedkrim ad yesmun twacunt-nnes ɣer targist maḥend ad isllem ixef-nnes iyefransisn.

Ad ytwaksi ɣer Ddalbiḍa, cwayt ad ytwaksi xef uɣarrabu n « εebda » netta d twacunt-nnes ɣer «  tegzirt n larinyun »   mani ywweḍ di 10 tubar 1926.

MULAY MUḤEND Zi larinyun ɣer Misra, tudart tasertant (1926-1963)

Twacunt n Lxeṭṭabi ad teddar, ujar zi 20 isggasn s uɣir xaf-s,  tudart n usegmi n iḥenjiren deg ict tmurt war telli nsen. Mani ɣa txarres Fransa ad ttesmuti zi tegzirt ɣer tmurt n fransa di 1947. Deg ubrid ɣer fransa twacunt n Lxettabi ad tek xef tarya n Ssawis di Misra, ass n 31 zi mayyu, ad immares  « uɣerrabu n katumba » di temdint n  Bursaεid. Deg wakud mani ɣa yettar zeg ugellid n misra «  Faruq » ad yeqqim xef ucar n tmurt-nnes. D manaynni ɣa yemsaren s imant nnes.

Waxxa ayrad n Arrif yiggej xef tmurt min xef yeksi amnus, xef  yspader tirelli d wattas zi tudart-nnes. Ɛemmers war yettu car n rjdud-nes, ktar aḥewwas aqqa-t εad yetteg min yxes di tarwa d igerwan n arrif. Di Misra ad yadef wemɣar tawwuri tasertant (champ politique), deg usggas n 1948 zi twwurt n lbiru n  « lejnat lmeɣrib lεarabi »,  cwayt ad yili d amɣar-nnes, deg iyyar n uslelli n tmura n zelmed tafriqit (Nord africain) . Di 1955, mulay muḥend yegga ifassen-nnes deg uslelli n lmeɣrib. Asuggi xef lεeskar n fransa deg igzennayn d mrmuca ad yej fransa ad txaṛṛes deg wufuɣ zi lmeɣrib, zzay-s tsmun imqqranen n ikabaren (parties) d yewdan n  « amussu anamur » (mouvement national), ḥuma akidsn tsinya « iks liban». Awaren «  azarug » n lmeɣrib (indépendance), lmexzen ameɣrabi ad yeg zeɣdira d tmeqqrant deg irifyyen 58-59. Ameɣar n arrif yssek tibratin ɣer tenbaḍt tameɣrabit, yeqqar day-sent tmuɣli-nnes xef min yttemsaren di arrif zzag-s tamneɣiwt n ymeqqranen n «  jic ttaḥrir» am εbbas lmsaεdi, d ḥeddu aqecic… d tgezzart n lmexzen deg iriffyen. Tudart tazirart n muḥmed n εebdkrim lxttabi ad tawḍ ɣer texrast-nnes tamggarut ass n 6 fbrayer 1963 mani ɣa yffeɣ buhbel zei arrimet n weyrad n arrif.

Yexsan n Mulay Muḥend nhara εad deg ucal di « tmeḍelin n ccuhada » di Lqahira, waxxa attas d irifyyen xsen ad ttedwer arrimet n wemɣar ɣer tmurt xef yeksi leklata.

AFP PHOTO / AFP PHOTO

MULAY MUḤEND WAR YEMMUT

Waxxa xarebbi d iseggasen yeεdun xef temttant n ugldun n arrif, waxxa di tidet tefsi arrimet-nes dg ucal, waxxa fsyen yxsan-nnes di tmurt n Misra maca mulay muhend εad yeddar di twengint n irifiyen, εad yeddar deg umezruy n tneẓbayt, d umenɣi aked uḥewwas xef tmurt d w agla, d tlelli… Mulay muhend s tirrugza d taryast-nnes yeqqim yedder dg umezruy, yeqqim d asafu n tlelli yerɣan di titawin n marra tarwa n arrif, ad yeqqim d-asitem ɣer imal icnin, ad yeqqim d anaruz n tiwcca.

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s