Categories: TadelsaTussna

Mayemmi ca n yirgazen d Ihindawiyen rezzun ad mquddan aked temɣarin?

Drus xmi ttemsaḍafeɣ deg usafar-inu di tmurt n Lhind, ula kṭer deg ibilajen d ledcur imeẓẓyanen deg yẓelmeḍ, ca n temɣart tbedd x ca n tḥanut niɣ teznuza ca n sselɛet di leswaq.

Tala:  Nature Picture Library/Alamy

Umi ttuɣa ttɣimiɣ deg iḥemmasen n Uttar Pradesh, ila ḥeṭṭiɣ irgazen ssujaden aɣrum azdad, ttqessasen lxuḍret ḥuma ad ssujden lasus n « ikariyen », tticen-tt i lekliyan iwetman. Ttuɣa ttɣimiɣ di macinat i yetteqqnen jar temdint n Kolkata d Gorakhpur ig ɛemmrent s imsebriden i yellan d iwtman. Tamɣart ttuɣa wer telli deg imucan mani ttili jjmaɛet.

Maca lḥal-a maci kifkif di Meghalaya, i d-yusin deg iẓelmeḍ n usammer n lhind. Di ssuq n Iewduh deg ukapital n jjihet n Shillong i di yella ijjen zi leswaq iqdimen, imeqqranen di nnhit-a. Tibridin n ssuqq ɛemmrent s temɣarin, i yeznuzan lxuḍret d weysum iqessen d tmeslayin n ssenɛet n ufus. Tiwessura aqa-tent di tɣemmura n ssuq seggurent tasebbabt-nnsent, tticent iwarditen i yirgazen-nni ɣer-sent ixeddmen ig ikessin iqurab n lxuḍret tazegzawet.

Raḥeɣ ɣer Meghalaya xemsa n twalatin qbel ad d-ttas jjriḥect. Ẓriɣ timɣarin di nnḥit-a, maci wer ttilint ca deg imukan mani ttilin jjmaɛet waha, maca ttilint din s waṭṭas ɛad. Ad yili manaya iddakk°al ila agdud n « Khasis », ig illan zeg wamunen imeqqranen di twilayt-a (wilaya). Netta ig illan d amun n tyemmat ameggaru deg umaḍal, da aḥenjir ttessnen-t s yemma-s. D argaz i yettmuttuyen ḥuma ad iɛic di taddart n temɣart-nnes, lwert n lwacun ittmuttuy zi tyemmat ɣer yelli-s tameẓẓyant.

tala! Zinara Rathnayake

Maca Min ɛnan Ayt Khasis ?

Din aṭṭas n tiṭyurin (théories) x manis i d-ikka wamun n Khasis. Min qqaren iwdan n wemkan-nni ila amun-a yeqqars-dd zi sbeɛṭac n terfiqin tuɣrisin. Hamlet Bareh, ig illan d amerzu deg umezruy yeqqar deg udlis n « amezruy n teqbilt n Khasis d tussna-nnes » deg useggas n 1967, belli iẓuran n teqbilt ttɛeqqaben ɣer teyrawin Tiwstriyin deg yeffus-usammer n Asiya i d-ikkin zi ca n teyrawin ssawalent ilsawen n Mon-khmer di taganin n Burma iṭṭurfiyen. imerzuten qqaren belli iles n « Khasis » i yessawalen imezdaɣ n teqbilt, ggin ameknaw iles n Mon-khmer. Xelli amenni, la d ijj n ma issen melmi i d-yetleɛ wamun n Khasis ɣer idurar d izɣaren n ẓelmeḍ-usammer n Lhind.

Azgen ameqqran n « Ikhasisen » zeddɣen di twilayt n Meghalaya deg useggas n 1972. Deg umseksi n unufsel n Bengladesh deg useggas n 1971, aṭṭas n lwacunat mterracent zi teqbilt-a n Khasis, zeddɣen yiḍ-a di Bengladesh. Ijjen cwayt zzag-sen ɛawed, zeddɣen di twilayt n « Assam » i dasen-yudsen.

Irgazen hekk°an ɣer izɣaren ḥuma ad mennɣen. Tala: Santanu Das/Getty Images

Teqqar Amena Nora Passah i yellan d icten zi teqbilt n Khasis, d taselmadt di tesdawit n North-Eastren Hill di Shillong, belli agla n wegdud n Khasis, netta yebna x wawal. Ttɛawadent tiḥuja timezwura, ila agdud n Khasis ttuɣa-t d ijjen wegdud ibna x ibabaten deg umezwar-nni.

Irgazen n Khasis, xminni ttemseksin x tmura aked tqebbal nniḍen, ttuɣa hekk°an ɣer izɣaren ḥuma ad mennɣen. Deg imenɣiten-a, ttmettan ca zeg yergazen, inniḍen zeddɣen deg izɣaren. Ma timɣarin i wesqen irgazen-nnsent niɣ ujjlent, mellkent twalat nniḍen. Aṭṭas n twalatin di teqbilt, ttafen amxmubel maḥend ad ssnen wi yilan aḥenjir.

Teqqar Passah : « Amun tuɣa yettwala iḥenjiren-a ila d « tarwa n leḥram », maca lejdud-nneɣ wer dasen-iɛjib bu lḥal x manaya, ufin ila d iḥenjiren d temɣarin ig ittetten aɛmud, zi senni, nnan ila iḥenjiren ixess ad ten-neqqen ɣer tyemmatin-nnsen ».

Agdud n Khasis imserwas di ca n twessaf aked wamunen nniḍen n tyemmatin illan deg umaḍal, zi twessaf-a nettaf : « igelwan ttmuttuyen zi tyemmat ɣer yelli-s, iḥenjiren ttlaɣan-asen s yisem n yemma-tsen, ttmunen aked ledcur n yemma-tsen »

Deg wegdud n Khasis iḥenjiren kessin isem i yemma-tsen. Tala: craft images/Alamy

Deg wegdud n Khasis, ttɛicen lwacunat d terfiqin jar-asen. Iḥenjiren kessin isem i yemma-tsen, s uya, kul lwacun ibedd x twemin i ɣa yejjen isem n lwacun lebda yedder. Tiḥramin deg wegdud n Khasis ɣer-sent tilelli ma ad ɛicent di taddart n lwacun niɣ di ca n taddart nniḍen. Ad nekkes zi manaya ḥa tmaẓuẓt, d nettat ig itteṭṭfen deg ufus-nnes igelwan n lwacun, wer tetteffeɣ taddart waxxa tili  temlek. Tettnhella di lwalidin-nnes teddakk°al d lall n taddart zegga ɣa temmet yemma-s.

Deg ubilaj n Tyrna, i yegg°jen s 65 n ikilumiṭren x Shillong, tzeddeɣ din Lauretta Sohkhlet, taweltmat d tameẓẓyant deg ijten zi twacunin n wamun n Khasis, aked wergaz-nnes di taddart n yemma-s. Waxxa Sohkhlet d nettat i ɣa iwerten taddart n yemma-s deffer i lmewt-nnes, maca uma-s Edilbert netta ig ibedden x lwacun. Edilbert ig illan d xal-s n iḥenjiren, d netta i ɣa ittkellfen s lmaɛica n weltma-s d lwacun-nnes.

Ittɛic Edilbert, ig illan d anemhal (directeur) n ijjen ssekwila di Tyrna, yegg°ej x twacunt-nnes, amek yettwassen deg wamun n Khasis. Tamɣart deg wamun-a ɛemmers ad tɛic di taddart n wergaz-nnes, maca d ameggaru i ɣer-s i d-ttmuttuyen. Luxa aṭṭas n yirgazen ttɛicen d nitni gg°jen x temɣarin-nnsen d iḥenjiren-nnsen, jarkṭer mala tamɣart tettsafar, txeddem.

Tamɣart deg wamun-a ɛemmers ad tɛic di taddart n wergaz-nnes, maca d ameggaru i ɣer-s i d-ttmuttuyen. Tala: Nature Picture Library/Alamy

Iqqar Edilbert : « Tamɣart-inu d tarwa-inu zeddɣen di Shillong, ttzureɣ-ten zi twalat ɣer tenniḍen, maca ixess-ayi ɛawed ad xedmeɣ x weltma d yemma ». Edilbert, deg iseggusa imeggura, irra ijjen tecwiḥt zi taddart n yemma-s d ijj n nnutil n imsebriden ḥuma ad d-issidef cwayt n ttmenyat i t-ɣa-iɛawnen x usarref x lwacun n weltma-s.

Passah, teqqar ila « xal-s n lwacun netta min xef ibedd lwacun. Ibeṭṭa, issugur lwert n taddart, lwacun wer izemmer ad igg la d ij n lḥajet bla ma ad ɣer-s yedwel ».

Di min yeɛdan, ibabaten ttuɣa wer neffqen walu x temɣarin-nnsen d tarwa-nnsen, minzi xeddmen x suytma-tsen d lwalidin-nnsen. Teqqar Passah : « Ababat ttuɣa ittɛeqqab-d ɣer taddart n temɣart-nnes s llilet, minzi di tuffut ixeddem di tbeḥḥar n yemma-s ».

Umi i d-usin Ibriṭaniyen, aked wefsar n uselmed, telɛen ca n « Ikhasisen » zeg ibilajen-nnsen ḥma ad rzun x lxedmet. Axalit (l’oncle) wer ɣer-s iqqim bu wawal aṭṭas, aked ubani n twacunin timaynutin mindi illa wergaz d temɣart d tarwa. Luxa, ca zzag-sen i ydewlen d Imasiḥiyen, ababat ig illan d kulci, waxxa ɛad lux agdud n Khasis di ledcur ḍeffaren asistim n tyemmat.

Passah teqqar : « agdud n Meghalaya d ij n wegdud n tyemmat maca dag-s tiwessaf n wagduden n ibabaten », temmal-d ila tamɣart deg wagduden n tyemmatin, d nettat ig itteḥkamen deg wamun d lḥukuma.

Kasis i ydewlen d Imasiḥiyen, ababat ig illan d kulci, waxxa ɛad lux agdud n Khasis di ledcur ḍeffaren asistim n tyemmat. Tala: Leonid Plotkin/Getty Images

Waxxa amenni, din ibeṭṭuten d imeqqranen jar wegdud n Khasis d igduden i isegguren iwetman di Lhind. Di lweqt mani ttẓellalen irgazen x temɣarin deg izubaq, nec beɛda ɛemmers wer xafi-iɛedd ḥedd di Meghalaya. Iberraniyen ɛemmers ma ssiwlen-dd ɣer-i, maca ttɛawanen-ayi mala weḍḍreɣ, tettreɣ zzag-sen ad ayi-ɛawnen.

Xmi teṭṭfeɣ Taksi di Shillong aked iwtman, ɛemmers wer xafi inɛedd ḥedd, merra ttexsen ad ksiɣ arraḥet-inu. Timɣarin danita, ttɛicent ijen tudert d tanimant (indépendante), maci am imucan nniḍen. Tamɣart i dayi-isnewjwen di ddcar Mawsynram, ij n wemkan zeg imukan-a i di yeccat wenẓar aṭṭas deg umaḍal, nettat d ij n tḥudriyt i yewḍen iseggusa n rebɛin-nnes, tettɛic weḥḥd-s, manaya ɛemmers ad yili deg imukan nneḍni di Lhind.

Di Lhind, aṭṭas n twalatin ttseqsan-ayi, ma lwalidin-inu wer qqaren walu xmi ttsafareɣ weḥḥd-i, maca la d ijjen ma isseqsa-ayi aseqsi-ya di Meghalaya.

Daribha Lyndem d ij n tmarat, i yellan d icten zeg wamun n Khasis, tettɛic di Mumbay, teqqar : « Irgazen deg wamun n Khasis ttweqqren timɣarin-nnsen, wer x-asent ttuffen ca ». Tamɣart deg wamun n Khasis urid tettɛic imxumbal d iceddan i tettɛic tamɣart Tahindit di jjwayeh nneɣni.

Lyndem teqqar : « la d ijjen ma isbezzaz ca n ḥajet x temɣarin di Meghalaya, ad yili imezdaɣ da, ttmeyyaken x temɣarin, kṭer zi min i tent-ssesqaran […] tili ferrḥen s tewtemt anict i ferrḥen uwtem »  

Patricia Mukhim i yellan d tameɣnast d tamarat di « Shillong Times » i d-itteffɣen s Teglinzit, teqqar belli udmawen n usistim n ubabat banen di Lhind amen yekmel. Irgazen ig itteggen kulci, ar mani tedwel tamɣart wer telli deg wazzareg apulitik, akadimi d wenni n tsebbabt.

Tiḥudriyin tihendawiyin ttafent imxumbal i tent-ittejjen wer ttkemmilent tiɣuri-nnsent niɣ d lxedmet. Mukhim teqqar ila deg wagdud n Khasis, ɣer-sent tilelli tanamunt, wer din qaɛ min tent-ɣa-ijjen ad nneɛtrent.

Ij n twessart mmelqiɣ-tt deg Iewduh i ttuɣa isegguren ij n ssuq n lxuḍret s jjemlet, tenna belli temsebḍa x wargaz-nnes, tegga ad tessgem tarwa-nnes weḥḥd-s d nettat tezznuza lxuḍret.

Umi i tt-sseqsiɣ mayemmi, tenna-ayi-dd : « Ttuɣa wer iqedd ca ad aneɣ-isɛic, wer t-ḥwijeɣ s uya ttreɣ zzag-s ad yeffeɣ zi taddart ». Tenna-ayi ila tmun aked waṭṭas n yirgazen awern-as netta. Minzi nettat ig illan d tmaẓuẓt di lwacun-nnes, tedwel luxa d nettat ig ibedden x igelwan n lwacun, aqqa-tt x yixef n ijt tseḍma n isebbaben iwetman d twetmin.

Maca zegga ttyarita, aṭṭas n irgazen zeg wagdud n Khassi, mlagg°ajen x ledcur-nnsen, manaya irenni tamara x tyemmatin. Teqqar Mukhim : « Irgazen, alaḥsab asistim n tyemmat, wer lli s bezzez ad nefqen x tarwa-nnsen zegga ɣa jjen abilaj. Aṭṭas n temɣarin i yettkellafen zi tarwa-nnsent ig immernin Meghalaya. Tiwacunin di min yeɛdan d nitenti ttuɣa ineffqen x tyemmat min xef yetleɛ wergaz-nnes, maca tiwacunin wer qqiment qeddent x manaya, s uya tiyemmatin ttuɣa uɣil ad sɛicent ixef-nnsent ».

Aked manaya, irgazen, bdan ttenhezzan maḥend ad ttren s ubeddel. Ijt zi tmesmunin  i yettettrent « asnufsel n yergazen » ttemseksint maḥend ad kksent asistim n tyemmat. Ijj n zeg iwdan-nni issiwel-dd ɣer BBC yenna « Wer nxes bu ad nekkes i temɣart tiseqqar-nnes d tseqdar-nnes, maca nxes ad nili deg umquddi akid-s ».

Maca Passah teqqar « inni ittettren ad kksen asistim n tyemmat zeg wamun, udrusen, maca ɛawed tkunfirma ula agdud qa-t ittekk luxa x ijjen lweqt n umutti ». Teqqar ɛawed : « Ca n twacunin lextu smquddant jar iwetman d twetmin di lwert. Ad yili tmaẓuẓt ɣer-s azgen ameqqran n lwert, maca qa s minzi d nettat ittkellafen zi lwalidin-nnes ɛawed ».

Passah, teqqar ila azgen ameqqran n imezdaɣ Meghalaya ṭṭfen di leɛwayed n usistim n tyemmat.

Tura-tt: Zinara Rathnayake

Asturjem: Andic

Tala: BBC

Cahid Andic

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