17 octobre , 2021

Lxezrat di min yura Muḥemmed Budcic x tirart di Arif

Zeg ineggura n lqern 19, zemmemen ikulnyalen aṭṭas n iɣezdisa n tudert n irifiyen d tdelsa-nsen d leɛwayed-nsen, am Auguste Mouliéras i yeggin ij n trezzut d tatnugrafit, d tasusyulugt x tqebbal n Arif asegg°as n 1895, d Samuel Biarnay, i dd-yessufɣen ɛawed tarezzut-nnes asegg°as n 1917 x tmaziɣt n Arif, yesmun dag-s aṭṭas n tḥuja d yezlan d umawal d leɛwayed zeg waṭṭas n tqebbal n Arif. d Amédée Renisio i yeggin ɛawed ij n trezzut asegg°as n 1932 x tmaziɣt n Arif zi Ayt Yeznasen ar Senhaja Srayer, yesmun dag-s ula d netta xarebbi n tḥuja d yezlan d leɛwayed d umawal, Rni-dd x-asen iseppunya i izemmemen leɛwayed n Arif, zag-sen Sarrionandia d José Borrallo Vadillo d Emilio Blanco … Bla ma a nettu ɛawed inni i dd-yusin awern-asen am David Montgomery Hart i yuran x teqbilt n Ayt Weryaɣel aegg°as n 1976, d temɣart-nnes Ursula Kingsmill Hart i yuran x temɣarin tirifiyin asegg°as n 1994…

Tarezzut d uzemmem n wudmawen n tdelsa d leɛwayed n Arif i yettwaggen di llṭa n uḥewwes niɣ qbel cwayt, ttuɣa din awern-as tiṭ n tmura n Uruppa i dd-yeḥḍan Arif d Lmeɣrib amen yekmel, ttuɣa ttzemmamen ḥuma ad ssnen iwdan mamec i ttɛicen d mamec i ttxarrsen, d min ssawalen… Aya merra ḥuma a x-asen dd-adfen. Maca waxxa amenni, ttuɣa-tent d tirezzutin ssersent aẓru n ddsad, ttwaḥsabent d tala i waṭṭas n trezzutin ttwaggant lexxu, deg yeyyar n tesnilest, niɣ n tetruppulugt, niɣ n tsusyulugt, niɣ n tsekla…

Awarn i wufuɣ n uḥewwas, aked uselmed i teḍfer ddewla n Lmeɣrib, i yebnan x wesɛerreb, yejja imerzuten ad reẓmen aqemmum ɣer ccerq, ad ttun tadelsa-nsen d yiles-nsen. Maca aked ineggura n isegg°usa n settin terred-dd awru, dewlen ttwaggan isurifen n trezzutin x tmaziɣt d tdelsa-nnes d leɛwayed n imaziɣen…

Madam nessawal x uzemmem d wegraw n leɛwayed d wudmawen n tsekla tamiwant, a dd-nidar Ḥasan Benɛaqiya i yesmunen xarebbi n yezlan n Arif, d Ɛebdelmuṭṭalib Zizawi i yuran tarezzut-nnes n dduktura x yezlan n Arif ula d netta. Zeg yinni i yesmunen izlan ɛawed, dinni Maysa Racida, tessufeɣ-iten-dd deg wedlis qqaren-as: « izran izran »… Aked uɣezdis n uzemmem n yezlan, din wi yeswiẓẓḍen ɛawed ɣer tḥuja d tenfas; zag-sen: Muḥemmed El Ayoubi i yesmunen 15 n tenfas tiqdimin, iturjem-itent ɣer tefransist, izemmem-itent deg yij n wedlis yeffeɣ-dd asegg°as n 2000 s yisem n « Les merveilles du Rif ». Din ɛawed Qaḍi Qeddur i izemmemen ij n tnayen n tḥuja yura-tent di trezzut-nnes n dduktura, iturjem-itent ɣer tefransist. din Hicam Beɛɛu i dd-yessufɣen adlis-nnes amezwaru « nnan di zic n wussan », yesmun dag-s tmenya n tḥuja n Arif. Din ɛawed Muḥemmed Aquḍaḍ i dd-yesmunen lebɛaḍ n tḥuja, maca izemmem aturjem i dasent-yegga waha ɣer taɛrabt, deg yij n wedlis yeffeɣ-dd d ucrik aked Ɛebdellah Cariq d Lḥusin Lqamari asegg°as n 1994. Wer nettettu ɛawed Muḥemmed Budcic, ula d netta yessufeɣ-dd adlis yesmun dag-s tiḥuja n Arif, maca ula d netta wer izemmem ca iḍrisen i yuran s yiles n tmaziɣt, yestekfa s uturjem-nsen ɣer teɛrabt, Din ɛawed Jamal Abarrou i dd-yessufɣen adlis asegg°as n 2018, yegga-s « LILA ET AMAR Contes berbères du Rif de la tribu d’Ayt Waryagher » yesmun dag-s tinfas zi Ayt Weryaɣel, turejment ɣer tefransist.

Min ma nenna x uzemmem n tdelsa d leɛwayed n Arif, nettaf ila aṭṭas i daneɣ-yeɛdun, aṭṭas i daneɣ-ixessen… Kter ɛad, di zzman-a i di nettɛic aked cwayt n yewdan ɛad ɛeqlen i tmunitin n twacunin ɣer tfawt n lqendel, d tirart n « man fus i yellan sennej » deg wexxam, d uɛawed n tḥuja, d wesneḥsel n yij d wenneɣni s twafitin… Arendad i manaya, nettaka s umerzu Muḥemmed Budcic ittahnaci ḥuma ad yemmneɣ aked iseɣwan n zzman i yesreggaben udem n Arif n yij nnhar... ittahnaci ḥuma ad izemmem min yuglen di twengimin i di yeqqim cwayt n buḥbel, ataɣ ad yeqqim yercem wer imeḥḥi.

Zegga i dd-yessufeɣ adlis deg 2019, yesmun dag-s tiḥuja, yedwel-dd Muḥemmed Budcic s wedlis nniḍen d amaynu, yeffeɣ-dd asegg°as-a (2021) s yisem n « Ca n tirarin n wegdud d timeɣrabiyin , zi Arif » (ألعاب شعبية مغربية من الريف), Adlis-a yura-t s teɛrabt, dag-s 223 n tesniwin, yegga-s tamessizwarut Jamal ddin Lxaḍiri.

1- Lxezrat deg wezwel

Azwel n wedlis yura s tira gedrent, yebḍa x tnayen n icerriḍen. Acerriḍ amezwaru dag-s: « Ca n tirarin n wegdud d timeɣrabiyin ». Acerriḍ wiss tnayen dag-s: « zi Arif ». Da, ittban umari ila yexs a dd-yebḍa s yij n wemkan d ajugrafi d ameqqran, i ɣer yeqqen timeslayin i xef yesserɣ tfawt di trezzut-nnes (Lmeɣrib). Zi senni, ihekk°a-dd ḥuma ad yessken s uḍaḍ ɣer wemkan ajugrafi d ameẓẓyan i xef yessers tiṭṭ di trezzut-nnes (Arif). Azwel yeqqar s yij n lefhamet: tirarin-a d timeɣrabiyin, maca necc ixḍareɣ-awem-dd zi Arif waha.

Min nzemmer a nini x manaya? Aseqsi-ya, ittawey-aneɣ bac a nehwel cwayt amari s useqsi nniḍen, a das-nini: Ma wer tettwilid aqa ttuɣa tzemmred a dd-tebdid zeg wemkan d ajugrafi d ameqqran, yujer wenni i di tesnaɣed tirarin-a? Ma wer tettwilid aqa tirarin-a d timaziɣin, nzemmer a tent-naf di kter zi tmenya n tmizar mani i tettenneḍ tmaziɣt, d mani i tella rriḥet n tdelsa tamaziɣt? Ttuɣa izemmer wezwel n wedlis ad yili ammu: « Ca n tirarin n wegdud d timaziɣin zi Arif ». S manaya, ttwaliɣ nreẓẓem tawwurt i imeɣri ḥuma ad yaka s usentel-a aqa iẓewran-nnes wtin ula ajemmaḍ i yegmiren i tegga tsertit. Tirarin-a, aqqa-ten-t di merra timura n imaziɣen.

2- Min izemmem Muḥemmed Budcic?

Amerzu Muḥemmed Budcic, x uɣezdis-nnes amari amaziɣ Saɛid Belɣerbi

Amen nniɣ qbel, yusa-dd wedlis-a ḥuma ad yessedder min ittraḥen ittmetta, s uzelzi n tɛejjajt x tirarin n yeqdimen di Arif, i zi nzemmar a dd-nessufeɣ lxezrat d tintrupulugin, d tisusyulugin ɣer tudert n Arif d irifiyen. Minzi di llṭa i di ttuɣa wer llint sekwilat, ttuɣa tirarin-a d ij n sekwila i zi dd-iɛeddu uḥenjir arifi, ilemmed dag-s mamec dd-ɣa-yawi tasɣart-nnes, mamec ɣa yeṭṭef acbar, mamec ɣa iweqqer wi yemɣaren, mamec ɣa yessejhed ddat-nnes… Tirarin n yeqdimen, nzemmer a x-asent nini: d asurif i zi dd-iɛeddu uḥenjir ḥuma ad yili d arifi, mmi-s n Arif n llṭa-nni…

Sennej i tmessizwarut i yura Jamal Lxaḍiri, d yij n tadaft tura s ufus n umari, nettaf adlis-a yebḍa x setta n iɣezdisa: tirarin n jjmaɛet, tirarin n lmunasabat, tirarin n leqfazet d uɣamar, tirarin n wi ɣa irebḥen, tirarin n wemseksi, tirarin n tiɣit.

S kulci; yesmun Budcic 47 n tirarin, deg yij n trezzut iwessef dag-s mamec i ttuɣa tteggen i tirarin-a, d wi tent-ittiraren, d mani i tent-ttiraren, d melmi. Manaya merra yerra-s tayit s yij n tiɣit, d yij n tutlayt tɣeyyez, tessakk°aḍ aterras ad yefhem tirart axmi i dag-s ixezzar zzat i tiṭṭawin-nnes.

3- Zi Arif, maca cwayt zi Arif.

Amen nessen, tirarin n imaziɣen waxxa d tinni d tinni, maca ttemsebḍant di lebɛaḍ n twezwizin i ittejjan abeddi ɣer-sent yif ad yili ḥuma ad tizdig lxezrat ɣer trezzut d uzemmem n uɣezdis-a n tdelsa tamaziɣt. Zeg iwezwizen-a i ibeṭṭan tirart zi tmurt-a ɣer tin, niɣ zi teqbilt-a ɣer tin, niɣ ca n twalatin zi ddcer-a ɣer win…; nettaf din isem n tirart. Manaya wer ɣer-s ibedd ca umari Muḥemmed Budcic deg waṭṭas n twalatin. S umedya, tinuffra din wi tt-ittsemman tiqnuffar (zi qqen+nuffer); taḥrarat, din wi tt-ittsemman « meḥrurd »; imezleqfen din wi ten-ittsemman imeddqen; aẓru n lemḥijj din wi s-yeqqaren » taqedduḥt n lemḥijj », (minzi deg wemkan n weẓru, ttḥejjren taqedduḥt). « tcemm » din wi das yeqqaren « man fus i yellan sennej »…. Abeddi ɣer manaya izemmer ad yili, maca ittxessa-t wakud d azegrar d usilleɣ n trezzut, d wennaḍ x waṭṭas n imukan.

Xmi nettɛaqqab ɣer wedlis n Muḥemmed Budcic, nettaf-it yugem-dd min yura zi xemsa n yewdan d imeqqranen di lesnin, kul ijjen manis:

  • Ḥmed n Ḥemmu n Cɛayeb, d usɛid, ilul asegg°as n 1941.
  • Muḥemmed Dari n Reḥmun, d utewzin, yexleq deg 1917.
  • Faḍma n Mmuḥ belleḥsen, d utemsamant, tlul deg 1939
  • Muḥemmed n Ɛbesslam Lemrabeṭ, d usɛid, ilul asegg°as n 1955.
  • Faṭima n Mmuḥ n Ɛmer, d tawriccect, texleq deg 1936.

Xmi nxezzar deg iterrasen-a i zi dd-yugem Budcic, nettessen ila yessers aḍar-nnes deg webrid n trezzut iqaden, minzi yeqseḍ iwdan i yellan d tisedlisin, tiwengimin-nsen iẓḍent s tdelsa tarifit i ttuɣa tteddren kul ass. Maca waxxa amenni, ittɣima usurif-a yeḥdaj isurifen nneɣnit i ɣa iraḥen ɣer iqelɛiyen d Ayt weryaɣel d ibeqquyen d icebdanen d yebdalsen d ayt yeznasen… Bac ad tiriw trezzut, ad iban mani ttemsebḍant tirarin d mani ttemsagarent, la di mamec tent-ittsemma kul amkan, la ɛawed di mamec dasent-tteggen… Manaya bac ad yili, wer yelli ca x yiri n Budcic waha, maca aqqa-t x yiri n merra imerzuten n Arif, d merra imeḥḍaren d iselmaden i itterran taynit i tmaziɣt d min ɣer-s yeqqnen.

4- Merra min izemmem Budcic d tirarin?

Adlis amaynu n Muḥemmed Budcic x tirart di Arif

Zi ca n tirarin i izemmem Muḥemmed Budcic deg wedlis-nnes, rriɣ taynit i ca n leɛwayed waxxa yeḥḍer dag-sent wudem-nni n lefraḥet d ufewwej, maca yemra bac a tent-nsettef aked tirarin. S umedya, xmi nessawal x Carreḥ Melleḥ, nessawal x ubeddi n imaziɣen ɣer tɛensart. Abeddi-ya swizant dag-s temɣarin d yergazen d iḥudriyen d iḥenjiren… Ittadef di leɛwayed niɣ (ṭṭuqus) n ubeddi ɣer yij n wass ɣer-sen mayemmi i ɣer-s ttbeddan. Mala tekkid-dd x ca n jjmaɛet tteggen cerreḥ melleḥ, uca tennid-asen aqa tettirarem, wer dasen-itteɛjib bu lḥal. Minzi min din tteggen ssnen illa wer yelli bu d tirart.

Min nenna x carreḥ melleḥ di tɛensart, nzemmer a t-nini ula x baccix deg wass n lɛid ameqqran. Xmi i ttmunen iḥudriyen n ddcar ad ggen baccix deg wass n lɛid, wer ḥessben ca min tteggen d tirart. Amenni ɛawed ula d aqelluz i tteggen deg wurar.

Baccix d carreḥ melleḥ d uqelluz… mamec ttwaliɣ, udfen di leɛwayed n wegdud, maca wer llin ca d tirart. Temsar-asen ame tutra n wenẓar/ taɣenja, am ubarreḥ di leswaq… Waxxa deg-sen ij uɣezdis n ufewwej, maca yemra bac a t-negg d taksart ḥuma a neḥseb kulci d tirart.

5- Tirart; d uɣezdis nniḍen n tsekla tamiwant.

Mala ttuɣa tirart dag-s tilal i ittejjan aḥenjir yezzunguz, ineggez, ittemseksi, ittegg tizemmar… Maca zi jjihet nniḍen; aṭṭas zi tirarin ksint udem n tsekla tamiwant, nzemmer a tent-neḥseb d cal i di yewta yiles iẓewran, aked uɣezdis n tenfas d twafitin d yezlan…

Yesserɣ tfawt Muḥemmed Budcic x waṭṭas n yeḍrisen, yeḥya-ten-dd deg wedlis-nnes, zegga i neggur a neẓẓall x waṭṭas n wudmawen n tsekla i iweddren aked ubeddel n wamun arifi.

Maca zegga i rriɣ taynit i ca n yeḍrisen, ufiɣ din tamatart n useqsi tettemrusa x ca n wawalen i ittxessan ad ttwaɣeyyzen, ḥuma ad ɛdun amen tenna ɣer imeɣra. S umedya, deg weḍris i yettwaqqaren di tirart n « tcemm », nettaf dag-s: « mani llan waman-nni? Swin-ten wayyraden. Mani llan wayraden-nni? ɣersen-asen ixedmiyen ».

Necc amen ssneɣ, deg wemkan n « wayyraden » i dd-yusin deg weḍris i izemmem Budcic, ttuɣa ittxessa-t ad yari « iyarraḍ » (Mani llan waman-nni? swin-ten iyarraḍ. Mani llan iyarraḍ-nni? ɣersen-asen ixedmiyen). D wa i yudsen ɣer tidet, minzi wer yelli ca n yizem ɣerrsen-as yewdan. Izemmer ad yili umari wer izemmem bu mliḥ min yesla zeg yinni i das-iɛawden, niɣ zi manis i dd-yugem, izemmer ɛawed ad yili ibeddel weḍris zi teqbilt ɣer tenniḍen.

Aḍris-a n n « tcemm » d amedya, din iḍrisen nneɣni ḥdajen abeddi ɣer mamec i ten ttɛawaden deg yimukan nneɣnit, amecnaw ḥida mida d ca nniḍen…

6- Ɣer umeggar:

Muḥemmed Budcic, zeg imerzuten i yeggin aɣyul deg waṭṭas n imussnawen ixeddmen deg wazzerg n tsekla d tdelsa d tutlayt timaziɣin, minzi iruḥ ɣer mummu n min neḥdaj kter zi ca nniḍen. Mala ttuɣa ikulunyalen zemmemen ḥuma ad ssnen arif d tudert n irifiyen, bac ad ssun abrid i uḥewwes, Budcic d ij umerzu ittzemmam bac ad yejj tawengimt n Arif lebda tedder. Bac ad yessen urifi i dd-yekkren x tirart n ubidyu d intirnit, ad yerẓem tiṭṭawin-nnes deg izurag n tdelsa n lejdud i di yella waṭṭas n wudem n tudert d tcuni.

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