22 mai , 2021

Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui : Tamɣart n wureɣ i yewcin tudert-nnes i Tmaziɣt

Deg wass amaḍlan-nnes, nessen ila d tamɣart ittejjan iles ittedder, tesseεedda-t i tarwa-nnes d wayyawen-nnes, s uyenni i das-neqqar « iles n tyemmat ».
Maca Tarifiyt min xef ɣa nessiwel, nettat tuzzel a telmed awal n lejdud-nnes, alemmud-nnes wer d-ittuyim ca zi tala n yemma-s waha, maca txes a tessen Tmaziɣt s tebridt d takadimit, s uya teɣra x-as, deg ijjen lweqt ila yeccur s iklicciten (les clichés) x Tmaziɣt d Imaziɣen. 
Tiweḍ a tili d Tarifit tamezwarut ig isseɣren Tmaziɣt n Arrif deg Uruppa, da nessawal x Lalla Mena B. Lafkioui. Nixḍar ad as-nlaɣa s "Lalla" minzi Imaziɣen lebda tticen isem-a d aweqqer i temɣarin i yewwḍen, mamec yella di tussna-nneɣ zi lebda.  

Arrimet di Biljik, buḥbel di Arrif

Deg ubilaj n Hamme, di tmurt Flanders-usammer, i di terẓem Massa Mena tiṭṭawin, tamurt d Tabeljikit mani ttemselqan ilsawen d tussniwin, xelli amenni, εemmers wer tqess iseɣwan i tt-iqqnen ɣer tmurt manis d-qqarsen yemma-s d baba-s.

Teqqar i lerifain « Xelqeɣ gi Biljik, gmiɣ dag-s, mɣareɣ-d di tmurt mani ssawalen Taflamant. Waxxa amenni wul, iqqim ilseq ɣer Tmaziɣt, ɣer Tmazɣa d Imaziɣen, mli urid amenni, a tili wer tteggeɣ ci lxedmet-nni qqaε i xedmeɣ.»

Xmi i tessawal Lalla Mena x lejdud, tessizwara s tyemmat d tḥennat d amezwaru, minzi txes ad tili d Tmaziɣt-nni ittamnen s tyemmat-nni min xef ibedd wegdud Amaziɣ. « Imaziɣen amezwaru ila qqarsen-d zi ɣa tyemmatin-nneɣ maci zi ɣer baba-tneɣ, tamslayt aqqa-tt ɣer Itargiyen εad lux, maca iwdan ttun-tt waha.» Terni twekked tameslayt-a.  

Massa Mena d Taweryaɣelt zi yemma-s nni i d-iqqarsen zi Tefrast (jjihet n Bukidaren), lejdud-nnes sseεdan-as targazt d wul ameqqran, manaya wer yelli d aɣrib x-as, ula kṭer mala nessen ila nettat d tayyawt n ijjen umjahed d ameqqran deg umezruy n Arrif, nessawal da x Lḥaj Manku, ittwassnen s lḥaj Muḥemmed n Lyazid n Ḥeddu Aḥidar.

Zi jjihet-nniḍen, d Tutemsamant zi baba-s i yellan zeg ilefqiwen di ddcar-nnsen ittsajjan x yeɣzar n Nnkur, i yeqqnen ɣer Truggut, tettwassen twacunt n baba-s s tussna-nnsen di Arrif.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui, Tamsaman 2002.

D ta d Lalla Mena, tenni i yeswin zeg waman n yeɣzar n Nnkur, i d-ittekken zeg idurar n Arrif i yuԑlan, ittferraɣ deg Umiditirani, teswa zi tussna n Arrif, tegga afriwen d Iflamaniyen, teqqar x iẓewran-nnes «Qqarseɣ-d zi Arif amen yekmel, maca ksiɣ-d ula zeg Iflamanayen. »  

Zi Tfilulujit n « afro-asiatique » d tesnilest tamatut ɣer Tmaziɣt

Teksi Massa-nneɣ Bak-nnes zeg ubilaj n Hamme, maca turagt (licence) texdem x-as di tesdawit n Ghent, mani ila teqqar Tafilulujit d tesnilest n yelsawen n Afro-asiatiques. 

Xenni, tebda teqqar x twacunt n yelsawen, am Taεibrit, Taεrabt, Takadit  d yelsawen isamiyen-nniḍen, ḥaca Tmaziɣt ttuɣa-tt wer telli di Biljik.

Massa Mena, tegga isuraf-nnes di tussna n yiles s ij n umaster umi qqaren « Oriental Languages and Cultures » i tegga di tesdawit n Ghent i teksi deg useggas n 1994, xenni tegga ijjen trezzut n master s Teflmanat x Tmaziɣt n Ayt Weryaɣel.

Ul-nni i ittexsen Tmaziɣt, d wenni yejjin aselmad-nnes di tesdawit n Ghent ad imsawaḍ aked Lionel Galand di Fransa, maḥend ad temmutti ɣer yiles n lejdud-nnes.

Galand i ttuɣa yellan zeg imeqqranen n tɣuriwin Timaziɣin di Lmuɣrib d Dzayer, yeggur ad issnewju ijjen tḥudrit d Tarifit, teṭṭef-d ɣer-s abrid zi Ghent ar Paris.  

Xenni Massa-nneɣ i ttuɣa yellan d taḥudriyt ԑad ila ɣer-s xirebbi n iseqsiten x Tmaziɣt, txes a ten-tessen, a ten-tessers x Lionel d temɣart-nnes Paulette i ttuɣa yellan la d nettat trezzu di tsekla n Tmaziɣt.

Amelqi-nni aked Lionel d Paulette i yeεdan issbeḥ, d wenni ireẓmen i Lalla Mena tiwwura x umaḍal n Tmaziɣt, maca ila tbedd zzat i tnayen n yebriden, ixess a texḍar ijjen zzag-sen ; ma ad traḥ ɣer Hulanda, i yella tessen iles-nnes, yudes-as, mani x-as ihwen lḥal, niɣ ad d-tas ɣer Paris, tandint n tfawin, bac a tɣer s Tefransist, tixḍar abrid iqesḥen, maca qqaε wer x-as tendim.

Ijjen useggas awern-as, ad tili d tameḥḍart i yessujaden DEA (adiplum n tɣuriwin i yullɣen) aked Salem Chaker, deg usentel n « Syntaxe intégrée de l’énoncé non-verbal berbère.» Zi senni, texdem x usujed n tebrat-nnes n dduktura i teṭṭef deg useggas n 1999.

Asentel-a waxxa amenni εad drus n imesnilsen i dag-s irzun, mani ttuɣa tessidef timeslayin i yeqqnen ɣer prosodie d tmesalyin-nniḍen.

Aked trezzutin n Massa Mena di Tmaziɣt, xenni a tebda a tesselmed Tarifit deg Inalco, mamec ttuɣa tessɣura tasnilest tamatut (linguistique générale). 

Aseqsi n tira n Tmaziɣt ila ɣer-s lhimmet-nnes ameqqran deg iseggusa n tesɛin. Iwdan i ila tterran taynit i Tmaziɣt, ttuɣa srusan aseqsi « mamec ɣa negg a nesmun tira n Tmaziɣt ? ».

X manaya ttwaggen aṭṭas n yemsagaren ameknaw wenni n CRB di Inalco, di cher n setta zi 1996, ijjen nniḍen ittwagg di yulyuz n useggas-nni s ixef-nnes deg Ugadir, Irifiyen ɛawed, deg Utricht, ggin amsagar x usmuni n tira n Trifit.

Lalla Mena d nettat i d-issegmen asistim n uzemmem (notation) i yiles n Trifiyt, asistim-a i d-ikkin amaḍal amen yekmel, ittwaqbel deg waṭṭas n iraqqen, xelli di Fransa mani ittwassidef ḥma ad yili di Bakaluriya, mamec ittwaqbel di Hulanda deg wemsagar n 1997, mani bedden x usistim n uzemmem n tira n Trifit i d-texdem Massa-nneɣ. Zeg uɣezdis-nnes, asit n lerifain.fr d ta d tabridt i yeḍfar i tira.

Tmaziɣt tezdeɣ ul, tiwwi leεqel.

Umi tebda tettegg lxedmet-nnes x Tmaziɣt ila teqqar-as yemma-s : « tecc-icem Tmaziɣt, tecci-cem tadunt » manaya ittejja-aneɣ a nefhem anict n tzemmar timeqqranin i tegga Lalla Mena bac ad tɣer Tmaziɣt, ad dag-s terzu.

Amek teqqar s ixef-nnes, belli iqqseḥ aṭṭas bac bnadem ad yawi abrid di trezzut n Tmaziɣt, mli d ca n tmeslayt-nniḍen ili yus-d ihwen x-as, ula kṭer ilsawen isamyen ila teɣra qbel ; maca umi tufa ila Tmaziɣt ḥeggren-tt ayt bab-nnes, ula d iberraniyen xezzren ɣer-s s tiṭṭ d taneqsit, manaya yegga dag-s wul bac ad tawi abrid-a n Tmaziɣt.  

Kṭer zi manaya, ula deg yiger akadimi, tufa din ikerkuren n tedyulujit i yeggin ḥala, sselsaqen Tamazɣa d Imaziɣen ɣer ca n tmeslayin maci d tidett, deg yimxumbal-a ina i tebda Lalla Mena tettemkabar bac a tbedd zzat i lkliciyyat-a tina, a ten-tseggem.

Amek nenna, Massa Mena tixḍar abrid iqesḥen, txes ad as-terr i Tmaziɣt amkan-ines i testahell, aya maci s tmenna waha, maca s waṭṭas n tira d ubeqqec d tmegga.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Lafkioui Mena B_Ayt Weryaghel_2013

Zeg uɣezdis-nniḍen, ifukk a nini mli Massa-nneɣ wer tumin di min tettegg, a tili tessers ifassen aṭṭas zeg wami, maca tizemmar-a nnes timeqqranin tuyem-itent-id zi taliwin n waman n Arif, minzi zeg wami tella d tameẓẓyant, Arrif d Tmaziɣt ggin amkan-nnsen deg wul-nnes, s tenfas i tettsela zi tḥennatin s llilet, niɣ s tḥuja n twafitin i txes a x-asent d-teffeɣ min ԑnant, ula s yezlan i di teḥḍer di tmeɣriwin, d mamec ttemsurrufen iwdan jar-asen, ula xmi timɣarin ttemzawarent jar-asent deg izurag.

Aya yejja later deg wul, iwta din iẓewran, idwel ul-nnes ineddu melmi mma tesla i wawal n Tmaziɣt d llɣa-ines deg imejjan.

S tԑenkraf d imxumbal, ittiẓid webrid

Aṭṭas n imerzuten, i yetteggen tirezzutin-nnsen mani mma di tesdawyin, tteggen ḥadur zeg wannar (terrain). Din umi itteɛjib ḥa ad iqqim x lbiru waha. Lalla Mena, maci d icten zzag-sen. D icten i yekkin aṭṭas n wussan, d nettat tettegg tarezzut n wannar, la deg Uruppa d Wafrika.

Mala nessawal x manaya, wer nzemmer a nettu lxedmet tameqqrant n « 🔗Atlas linguistique des variétés berbères du Rif » i dd-yeffɣen aseggas n 2007. Adlis-a awern-as ijjen tamara d tameqqrant, tekka dag-s tamerzut-nneɣ ddcar ddcar, taqbilt taqbilt di Arrif, zeg Ayt Iznasen ar Isenhajen.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Lafkioui Mena B_Taghzut_2001

Tesmun dag-s awal n Arrif, txezzer mani ittemserwas d mani ittemsebḍa x waṭṭas n iɣezdisen. Amux tessidef dag-s ca n 356 n nnkawi, dag-sen i d-temmal, kul amkan di Arrif s wawal-nnes. Lxedmet-a tanita wer din bu weltma-s di Tmaziɣin i yellan di Lmuɣrib niɣ ula di Tmazɣa ar yiḍ-a.

Awerni lxedmet-a tameqqrant, teqqar Lalla Mena ila walli tus-d amenni waha, maca tɣasṭar dag-s aṭṭas n jjehd, abarru n lweqt, tettawi targazt d wul i ixes bnadem ad t-igg deg ixef-nnes, d ijjen lxedmet maci ḥa tessaḥal di arrimet n bnadem waha, maca tessaḥal ula di tnefsiyt-nnes.

Tettԑawad-aneɣ x min tesseԑda amenni d nettat teqqar-aneɣ “ixess ad tessned mamec ɣa tegged a tjebded ineɣmisen min xef ɣa txedmed di tmurfulujit, bac a tessned a ten-tejbeded zeg iwdan, ixess a tessned a tmesurrufed aked iwdan, ad asen-tewced lweqt, aked manaya ԑawed, ixess a tessned tamurt”  

 “Lxedmet n wannar teqseḥ, d tmurt-nneɣ teqseḥ, waxxa iwdan-nneɣ d llemliḥ, maca ixess ad asen-tessned” terni tenna.  

S manaya i tella Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui d tamɣart n wannar, d icten maci ḥa tessen Arrif amen yekmel zeg Waẓila ar igmiren n Ledzayer, maca tessen ula d tamurt n Imaziɣen merra mani mma llan.

Arrif d Urifi i ssneɣ ibedd x tlata n tmeslayin

“Nec jjiɣ-d familiya di Arrif ammen yekmel” d wa d awal i daneɣ-tenna, d nettat tettԑawad-aneɣ x min das-iqqimen di lbal aṭṭas d nettat tettsara Arrif s iɣezran-nnes, idurar-nnes, izeɣran-nnes d lebḥur-nnes.

Din ca n tmeslayin i tettḥada deg Urifi, aqqa-tent ɣer-s d ddsas d ameqqran min xef tbedd tanettit-nnes.

D amezwaru n manaya d tsexxayt (générosité); teqqar ila Arifi a t-tessned mala netta d asexxay, xmi i kid-m ibeṭṭa min ɣer-s waxxa netta wer yeԑlim walu.

Tasexxayt-a tettḥasb-itt Massa Mena d ddsas n tussna iԑelmen Irifiyen, manaya zi lebda ila illa ɣer-sen, maci iqqen ɣer ddin waha, maca yeẓẓu deg ucal n Arrif.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Lafkioui Mena B_Iznasen_Tafuγalt_2002

Manaya, tettwala-t Massa Mena, kunṭra i tmuɣriwin-nni i zi d-xezzren ɣer Irifiyen, axmi “qqnen x ixef-nnsen”, teqqar nettat ila Arifi lebda wul-nnes innurẓem x yenniḍen, kṭer zi manaya ireẓẓem tiwwura n taddart-nnes ibeṭṭa min iԑlem.

Zi tmeslayin-nniḍen i tettwala deg wudem n Urifi d targazt-nnes, targazt maci teqqen ḥa ɣer iwtman waha maca uli di temɣarin i di tella targazt kṭer zeg irgazen.

Ddsas ameggar d “aԑeffar” i zi ttwassnen ԑawed, waxxa merra manaya yettraḥ ittbeddal di Arrif-nni i tessen Lalla Mena, minzi lux ttuqiԑen ibeddilen d imeqqranen i yettḥadan ula ddegg-a n ddsas min xef tbedd tudmawant (la personnalité) n Urifi.

“tlata‑ya ɛemmars a tent‑ttuɣ, ttafeɣ‑tent di kulci, mala wer tent‑ufiɣ, ssneɣ illa walli bu d Arifi, niɣ walli d Tarifiyt. Tamɣart Tarifiyt wer teqqim bu d Tarifiyt, teqḍa targazt, tasexxayt  qa‑tt din, ad tt-tafed ɣer upuvri wer tt‑ttifeḍ ɣer wenniḍen”

S ijjen uzmummeg d tḍeḥḥakt x wudem-nnes, tenԑem-aneɣ Massa Mena, ila din ca n tmeslayin i yeqqiment di lbal-nnes, wer tzemmer a tent-tettu ameknaw iselman n Biya d temriqt n Tfarsit d watay n Ketama.  

Ticli d tazegrart deg uselmed d trezzut

Zeg useggas n 1995, i tebda Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui, tettic timsirin (des leçons) d yemsagaren i yettwaggen x yegran n tesnilest d min ɣer-s iqqnen deg waṭṭas n tesdawyin la deg Uruppa, la deg Umarikan.

Aked manaya, ila trezzef ɣer xirebbi n tesdawyin ḥuma ad din tewwec timsirin-nnes la deg Uruppa, Afrika d Marikan.

Mamec tbedd x waṭṭas n tɣuriwin, tessɣar, tesselmed di Tesdawit n Milano-Bicocca ar useggas n 2014, umi tedwel d Directeur de recherche deg CNRS gi Paris, mani tbedd ԑawed x lkursi n tɣuriwin Timaziɣin di Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales deg useggas n 2018.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui Ṭanja Ijjen wudem zi lxedmet n wannar-nnes.

Afsar n idlisen, ijjen awerni wenniḍen.

Nzemmer a nini bla ccek, ila Lalla Mena, tettwaḥsab d ijjten zi tmerzzutin tuqlilin deg yiger n Tmaziɣt i yeqqiment ṭṭfent deg ucbar n trezzut. Amenni teqqim, trezzu, tettbeqqec. Kul twalat a tt-naf, tewwi-d amaynu, tessufeɣ-it-id.

Da a d-neydar tesԑa n tɣuriwin, a zzag-sent neydar ca zzag-sent; deg useggas n 1999 a tefsar ijjen x twinest taramyagt di Tmaziɣt, awern-i tlata n iseggusa, tessufeɣ-d ij n udlis aked Daniela Merolla x tḥuja n Icawiyen di Ledzayer. Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui tessufeɣ-d deg useggas n 2007 ij n udlis ɣer-s lhimmet-nnes tameqqrant di tɣuriwin n Tmaziɣt d tinni Tirifiyin, da nessawal x «🔗 Atlas linguistique des variétés berbères du Rif ».  

Zi 2010 d 2011 mseḍfaren-d tnayen n idlisen ɣer-s, amezwaru d « Des formes linguistiques aux processus langagiers» wis tnayen d «Etudes de la variation et de la structuration linguistiques et sociolinguistiques en berbère du Rif »  

Aked manaya, yiḍ-a, Massa-nneɣ, zi temɣarin i yefsaren xirebbi n artiklen x Tmaziɣt, ttakk°aḍen ar tmanin, bla rebɛa-nniḍen aqqa-ten ttwafsaren deg yiger n ijjen wemsagar.

Aya, yettɣima cwayt zeg waṭṭas, x lxedmet i tegga Massa Mena B. Lafkioui, maḥend ad ssnen iwdan itterran taynit, ticli i tewya nettat trezzu di Tmaziɣt.

Prof. Dr. Mena ɣer-s amkan-nnes ameqqran di trezzutin x Tmaziɣt, s uya i tettwaxḍar ad tili zi tinni i ɣa isbedden « section Berbero » di tkadimit n Ambrosiana di Milan, ɛawed, zi tinni i ibedden x « Classe Africa » di Tkadimit-a s ixef-nnes, mamec i tettwafren d Takidimit di « Academia Europaea d Tkadimit n Ambrosiana.

Inuḥyuten-a (ces distinctions) ɣer-sen ijjen lhimmet d tameqqrant deg umaḍal ammen yekmel, d inuḥyuten maci ḥa sgeԑԑden zi ccan-nnes weḥḥed-s, maca sgeԑԑden ula zi Tmaziɣt.

Tudert n trezzut ibedden x imezran

Buḥbel maḥend iqqim ittali, iṭṭar, Massa Mena tkessi akid-s isitimen txes a ɣer-sen taweḍ, trezzu ad texdem x usmutteg (formation) n iselmaden n Tmaziɣt, lxedmet-a tanita ԑecra n iseggusa d nettat tessujad-as.

Manaya, txes ad t-tegg mani mma llan iselmaden n Tmaziɣt maci ḥa di Lmuɣrib waha maca di Tmazɣa merra.

Aked uɣezdis n manaya, tetterra taynit i umezruy n yiles d usettef-nnes d ubeṭṭu-ines, “qa ԑad din aṭṭas n tmeslayin ggurent-id”. Teqqar‑aneɣ.

Bla tasnilest min xef txeddem, tetterra taynit i Tenṭrupulujit, leԑwayed tiqdimin, amezruy d tsekla, txeddem ula x usɣun ig ismunan merra manaya.

Txes ad texdem x merra manaya “Mala txes tudert d mala tiwwi-tt-id lweqt” i  daneɣ-tenna Massa‑nneɣ.

 Iles maḥend ad idder, ixess ad izdeɣ deg wul d amezwaru.

Lxezrat n Prof. Dr. Mena ɣer yiger-a tiriw, tettwala belli Tmaziɣt d amezwaru ixess ad dag-s ṭṭfen Imaziɣen ad qqimen lebda ssawalen-tt jar-asen, zi senni i d-tettas tira. Nnhar ɣa semḥen Imaziɣen deg yiles-nnsen ataf xenni a temmet.

Maca ixess Imaziɣen ad ḥesben Tmaziɣt d yiles ikmel, mamec ixess ԑawed asidef n wawalen n jjdid, maḥend Tmaziɣt a tugur aked lweqt.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Lafkioui Mena B_Tittawin_2013

“ixessa awal‑nni ad yeqqim yelseq ɣer umezruy n tmaziɣt, ɣer tudert n imaziɣen n Arif. Ixessa ad yeqqim nettwala dag-s tamurt. Mala walli amenni, ixessa ad yeqqim yeṭṭef deg wul n Imaziɣen, mala wer yeṭṭif deg wul‑nsen, walli mayemmi t‑ɣa‑yarin/a t‑ssiwlen.” D nettat tessawal x tmeslayt-a ta.  

“ɛad ixessa‑tt aselmed, tɣuri, wi ɣa‑tt‑yessɣern, ad tili di merra iswiren n wamun, ula kṭer min yellan d adelsan, am musika d umezgun d qaԑ iraqqen n tussna.” Terni tenna.

Igaz lḥal a timɣarin

Wer nzemmer a nessiwel x Lalla Mena, a x-as nari, bla ma a tt-nesseqsa x temɣart, s tidett nettat d icten iwwḍen s tzemmar-nnes timeqqranin, maca ԑawed tessen mliḥ lḥal n temɣarin di Arrif, maci ḥa s minzi tegga x-as tirezzutin-nnes, maca d icten tettiԑic akid-sent, tessen imunas-nnsent d imezran-nnsent.

S tfeqqeԑt teqqar‑aneɣ, belli Tamɣart teggur ɣer deffer waha, minzi din aṭṭas n tmeslayin i tt-ittejjan wer tzemmer a tessuref ɣer zzat.

Timeslayin-a mladafent jar-asent, di min iqqnen ɣer pulitik, tadyulijit, tussna, merra manaya wer ittejji ca tamɣart a teṭṭef amkan-nnes i testahell a ɣer-s yili luxa.

Tala: Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui, Ibeqquyen 2001.

Maca manaya wer isgeԑԑid ca tamasayt x yiri n temɣart,

Timɣarin nnuɣent, weḍḍrent deg isistimen ig ittemԑawaden, ԑawed teqqar qa maci ḥa d fayu n irgazen waha i wer yejjin ca timɣarin ad ugurent ɣer zzat, minzi isistimen ttetten bnadem, ttejjan‑t iḍԑef zzat-sen.

Deg umeggaru qqaԑ tesgura s ij n wawal: « timɣarin mala wer kkrent ad jahdent, ad ggent amkan‑nsent, ad ssiwlent iles‑nsent, awal‑nsent, qa ataf wer din ci, wer zemmarnt ad rajant ar dd‑yas wargaz …, argazen din wi ɣa yɛawnen, maca ixessa xelli d nettat ad tekker, wer ttejji ca lḥal yeffaryeḍ amya, minzi manaya aqqa-t x yiri-nnes ra d nettat. 


Tzemmrem ad tesshwam merra artiklen d idlisen n Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui mala tɛebbẓem x isiten-a s wadday: 

🔗 Asit n Prof. Dr. Mena B. lafkioui
🔗 raq n Prof. Dr. Mena B. Lafkioui x Academia.edu
🔗Sehwam ssa adlis n « atlas linguistique des variétés berbères du rif » Atlasrif

Ejj akumunṭir

Ari akumunṭir
Ari da isem

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s