Ikurdiyen n Turkiya: Tḥajit n wegdud-a i ttɛawaden imedyazen-nnsen.

Ssuṭ yejhed, nettesl-as deg izubaq n Diyarbaker. Waxxa wer tessined ula d ijjen wawal zeg yiles Akurdi, maca iggur a tacid s wul-nnec tiqqest n iwezwizen i d-itticen zi ssut-a.

Tamdint n Diyarbaker, di Turkiya, tettwassen ila nettat d tamdint tameqqrant n Ikurdiyen di ddewla-ya. Twasit-nneɣ neccin di BBC ɣer temdint-a ttuɣa-t deg unebdu. Ttuɣa yeḥma lḥal aṭṭas. Jjihet-a amen tekmel tewreɣ am ṭṭiya n tfukt issekmaḍen.

S wass, tamdint amen tekmel tettban axmi telɛen zzag-s iwdan-nnes. Maca s tmeddit, a tebdid a teslid i ẓẓga n iḥenjiren, aqqa-ten neggzen mani mma. Timɣarin irrḍent ijjen uḥewwaq x uzellif, ttejjant abilaj-a zegga salant ccɣel n taddart maḥend ad sɣent min dasent-ixessen di leswaq, ttɛeqqabent-id s min d-sɣint deg ifassen-nnsent.

Jjihet-a tettwassen ila teɛlem ijjen ucal yecna i tfellaḥt. Ẓẓga d ssdeɛ n iweziwizen umi nesla ttuɣa-t ittekk-d zeg izubaq n Diyarbaker. Ẓẓga ittekk-d zi lbaṭimat n temdint.

Crédit photo, umut kacar/Alamy

Imeslan ttɛawaden amezruy n tiqqad n Kurdistan.

Deg izubaq, nettesla i ẓẓga n tcejjura, iṭan ittzun d imeslan-nniḍen. Ca n twalatin, nettesla i uklaksuni n ṭṭumubinat. Waxxa deg wammas n ddegg-a n ssdeɛ, nzemmer a nsel i tiqqest n tiqqad, maca s ijjen tebridt-nniḍen. Ssut-a ittggeɛɛad-d aked timexsa, asitem d uxeyyeq d weqḍaɛ n layas.

Deg ijjen lbaṭima qqaren-as Mala Dengbez di Dengbez, d ijjen lbaṭima s ijjen wul d ameqqran, tettwazewweq mliḥ waxxa nettat d ijjen lbaṭima d taqdimt. Dag-s ijjen wazzreg innurẓem. Da mani nettsella i ssuṭ-nni ixeyyqen, min xef nessiwel s nnej.

Ttuɣa din ijjen tḥenjirt tettɛawad amezruy iqqsen n Kurdistan. Amkan-a umi qqaren Kurdistan, yiḍ-a ibḍa x waṭṭas n tmura: Suriya, Ɛiraq, Turkiya d Iran. Aṭṭas n Ikurdiyen wer ɣer-sen taddart awerni i ubeṭṭu-ya, azgen-nnsen ameqqran nhara-a zeddɣen di Bemulk. Umi nitni qqimen ṭṭfen deg yiles-nnsen, leɛwayed-nnsen, tussna-nnsen, d umezruy-nnsen Akurdi, Ikurdiyen ssiɣan ṭṭfen di tmurt-nnsen, zeddɣen dag-s s wul-nnsen.

Ca n iseggusa zi mani, timilisiyatin (des milices) Tikurdiyin snekkrent ijjen umseksi aked leḥkam Aturki. Ijjen uzgen d ameqqran zi temdint n Diyarbaker yerdel s imenɣan. Tizemmar d timeqqranin i yettwaggent bac ad as-immewc lɛezz-nnes. Waxxa amenni, ijjen ucwiḥ zi temdint aqqa-t ibenna bac ad as-wcen ijjen buḥbel d amaynu.

Crédit photo, Terry Richardson

Bu tḥuja i yessnen ad yirar s tmijja-nnes

Di baryu n Mala Dengbez, aṭṭas n midden inyerwen bac ad slen i yijj n wergaz ittɛawad amezruy irẓigen n Ikurdiyen, s ca n cclaɣem d izegraren. Iyrḍ ijjen tqmijjat teqqers, ikessi ijjen teɛmamt s ufus-nnes afusi, ittegg axmi yeggur zi yeffus ɣer ẓelmeḍ.

Argaz-a aqqa-t ayenni iwweḍ issawal d netta ittbeddal zi tniɣt-nnes n wawal, isxeddam timijjawin msebḍant. Di ca n lweqt ittban-d axmi d awal n wemherwaḍ, niɣ d awal i zi iqqar izlan, maca s ca n tiɣist d tameqqrant, igga am ca n ugezzan. Aṭṭas n midden i yeḥḍaren qqimen dag-sen iwalen i d-iqqar. Itterra-d s teycatin, s uzellif, s ifassen ula d ca n ttwalatin iɣeṭṭel-d ameṭṭa, issadaf aya di tḥajit-nnes.

Crédit photo, Terry Richardson)

Min ixes ad yini Dengbe?

Awal akurdi “Dengbe” ixes ad yini “agezzan n ssuṭ”. Dag-s tnayen n wawalen: Deng, ixsen ad yini “ssuṭ” d “Be” s lmeɛna n “ini”.

Manaya ixes ad yini ila artistat n “Dengbe” ttɛawaden tiḥuja, sseddaren zeg umezruy Akurdi.

Di tneddam d ibilajen Ikurdiyen, tedwel d ɛada midden ad nnyerwen maḥend ad slen i tḥuja timezruyanin (historiques) n ayt bu tḥuja. Azgen ameqqran zeg inni ittɛawaden tiḥuja-ya d irgazen. Maca qa din ca zi temɣarin i ikessint bandu adelsan n Dengbe.

Itɛin tili wer ɣrint ca, maca s minzi nitneti qellɛent-id nnefs i ubeddel n tmijja, kessint deg uzellif-nnsent abarru n tḥuja i d-ttagment zeg umezruy, d ijjen wagla d ameqqran ittmuttuy zi tasalt ɣer tenniḍen.

Ttwaliɣ ila tẓuri n Dengbe tɛic minzi azgen ameqqran n Ikurdiyen ttɛicen di ledcur”. D manaya i yeqqar Hanifi Barış, d ijjen usdawan d Akurdi zi tesdawit n Aberdeen itteggen tirezzutin x ddegg-a. “ijemmuɛen di tudrin n inewjiwen, tudrin n imɣaren niɣ tudrin n ayt Dengbe ttuɣa-tt d ijen ɛada itteggen di llyali tizegrarin n tjuras di Kurdistan. Meɣreɣ-d deg ijjen taddart am ta”.

Ijemmuɛen-a qqaren-asen “şevbêrk” (ixes ad yini “tnusi”). Manaya ittic i Idengbiyen laman, d twacit i yecnan aked imeslan i yettxsen ad ggen s tẓuri-ya.

­Tudert n umkabar d lmaɛica i iqesḥen

Zeg wami tettwagg tagduda n Turkiya ass n 1923, iles d tussna Takurdit ttuɣa ixess-asen ad mkabaren bac ad ɛicen adu i uqabu d tsertit (politique) n usidef n bezzez di lweqt mani Ankara ttuɣa txes ad tesmun cal n tmurt, mani Ikurdiyen ula nitni ila ttemkabaren bac ad ggen ddewla-nnsen.

Iyezzumen n imenɣan-a i yettwaggen amenɛad – imseksiten n 2016 jar ddewla Taturkit d imeɣnas Ikurdiyen – ɛad aqqa-ten d ṭṭri. Ijjen wezgen d ameqqran zeg uɣezdis aqdim n temdint n Diyarbaker ttuɣa yerdel. Lexdayem n lebni iddal x iyezzumen i yullɣen d izegnan d imeqqranen n temdint ɛad qqnen, ttemseddaren aked lebni i yegguren s cwayt cwayt.

Di beddu n lqern-a, timeqqanin (des relations) Tikurdiyin-Titurkiyin bdant ttilint mliḥ. Deg useggas n 2004, Ankara tmeyyek x usexdem n yiles Akurdi deg imsagaren imatayen (publiques); di 2009 ttlibizyu igga ijjen tbadut (canal) s yiles Akurdi, di 2012 dewlent timzgidawin n tɣuri sselmadent Takurdit axmi d ijjen yiles d aruccil (facultatif).

Ammas n Mala Dengbêjan yerẓem tiwwura-nnes aseggas n 2007 d ijjen ufus n twiza i tegga taɣiwant Takurdit maḥend ad seddren Dengbêj axmi d ijjen ɛada d Takurdit!. Yirar wammas-a ijjen tilalt (rôle) d tameqqrant bac ad d-tedwel ɛada-ya ɣer midden.

Ireẓẓem zi 09h00 ar 18h00, zi ttlata ar larbeɛ, Mala Dengbêjan wer ɣer-s bu ca n tseɛɛatin n lebda bac ad dag-s msagaren, ḥessben-t d ammas (centre) mani ttmelqan kṭer zi mamec yella d “ammas adelsan”.

Tteggeɣ tizemmar bac ad ẓreɣ argaz-nni ig ittɣennjen, lkisan n watay i yeḥman aked umherwaḍ s cwaytcwayt. Iwdan d jjdid aqqa-ten ttasen-d, ttraḥḥaben zzag-sen s ifassen d usudem x igelluɣen.

Crédit photo, B.O’Kane/Alamy)

Amɛali n Dengbe

Waxxa Dengbe lux neɛmen zzag-s, maca qa din imɛaliyen (Les défis) d imaynuten: Iwdan lux bdan ttrakk°aln ad zedɣen di tneddam, ɣer tneddam i yegg°jen. Ijjen zzag-sen d Baran Setin, 32 iseggusa. Ilul deg ijjen ddcar yus-d deg ijjen wedrar yegg°ej, x igmiren aked Arminiya. D raq, yessbeḥ, maca tudert din teqseḥ. Igga aked yiman-nnes bac ad yugur ɣer Istanbul. Aṭṭas n iseggusa d Ikurdiyen zeddɣen da.

Xal-s n Baran d anaẓur n Dengbe, tẓuri-ya i yeksi zi baba-s. Baran iqqar ila ssuṭ-nnes ixes wer ittili ca d ssuṭ n ugezzan (Dengbe). “Wami i das-sliɣ i Dengbe, wer zzag-s fhimeɣ qqaɛ ɣer umezwaru-nni”. Ammu i yenna Baran.

Aqqa d timeddurin (des vies) d tḥuja n umezruy i yeqqsen n Ikurdiyen, yeqqseḥ ad fehmen iberraniyen ula d ijjen wawal zi Dengbe. Lux a nekessi s wemnus ila Dengbe izemmer ad iweḍḍer maḥend din iḥudriyen ameknaw Baran i ɣa immerniyen. Maca, xelli amenni, qa din asitem ila tussna-ya a temutti zi tasalt ɣer tenniḍen, ad iɛawen tussna Takurdit a tɛic kṭer ɛad.

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s