25 septembre , 2021

Aydud Arifi d lmewt n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan (1909-1912)

Ccrif Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan zeg imjahden n Arrif imeqqranen. Igga tizemmar d timeqqranin ḥma ad isbedd adaf n Ispunya di Arrif. Netta zeg imezwura i yewton aqerṭas ar mani i yemmut deg imseksiten-nnes i yegga aked Ispunya. Da iggur a nẓer mamec ttuɣa ttwaman Ispunya d Irifiyen lmewt-nnes. 

Tamenɣiwt d lmewt di tira tikulunyaliyin

Qbel ma a nessiwel x tmeslayt n lmewt n Ccrif Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan, ttwaliɣ ila ixess d amezwaru a nessiwel x tira tikulunyaliyin d lxezrat-nnsent ɣer ufinumin n lmewt di Arrif. Raymond Jamous i yeɣrin x ca n tnamitin d leɛwayed i yettilin x umettin zegga ɣa immet. Iydar-d mamec Arifi bac ad yedwel d « Aryaz » ixess tarwa-nnes ad ssemɣaren zeg imeddukal-nnes d iɛdawen-nnes jar sebɛ-yyam d rebɛin-yum. Ixess-asen a x-as ɣasṭaren aṭṭas zeg wagla i dd-ijja bac ad ssemɣaren zi baba-tsen i yemmuten. Jamous yeqqar « Aqqa taryazt d waddur di ddegg-a n ficṭat nɛebbar-itt s mcḥal n lmal i yeqqarsen d mcḥal n imendi d farina immeccen ».

umi ksin lxecbet n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan ɣer Spiṭar n Mlilet

Di min iqqnen ɣer ufinumin n tmenɣiwet, azgen ameqqran n tira tikuluniyalin qqarent belli Arifi itteɛjib-as ad ineɣ. Moulièras iqqar belli « Wer ittif [zeɛma Arifi] mana ḥsen zi min zi min ɣa yegg bac ad yades ɣer Rebbi, mɣir ad ineɣ ca n Urumi. Ar mala wer yufi ca n Urifi zeg Iqelɛiyen ca n uberrani i ɣa ineɣ, nettaf-it ittneqlab x wuma-s Arifi. Ca n isedwal ssawalen zeɛma mamec Arifi mala yesɣa ca n tejwijt d jjdid, ixess ad tt-iqelleb deg wuma-s Arifi bac ad issen ila qa txeddem mliḥ ».

Ma Jacques Dumaine i ttuɣa yellan d llqeb n Robert Montagne i yessiwlen x Arrwina n Arrif, nettaf irni dag-sent d netta issawal x imenɣan d imseksiten x walu. Am umeski n sebɛa iseggusa i yekkren x waydi. Deg ijjen tḥajit-nniḍen s resbab umi ugin ad jjen ijjen tnayen n temɣarin ad adfent ca n ssuq. Din ɛawed Westermack i daneɣ-dd-isɛeddan ijjen « ufuṭu d akarikaturi » x Urifi-nni i yella mala yemlec, wer t-tteḥsiben ca d argaz mala wer inɣi ca n twalat.

Adlis n Raymod Jamous i yegga x Arrif

Ma David Hart, yettwala belli qa zi lesbab n ddegg-a n tmenɣiwin di Arrif d ikunumi. Minzi netta iqqar ila Arif d ijjen tmurt d tameẓluḍt, ttuɣa wer izemmer ad issecc merra tarwa-nnes s uya ixess x wagdud Arifi ad iwwec kul aseggas imettinen, ḥuma ad neqsen imezdaɣ.

Aqqa newwi-dd manaya sennej x lmewt d tmenɣiwt di Arrif, maci ḥuma a nerr ifeẓ i min nnan ddegg-a i yeɣrin x Arrif. Maca ɣir ḥuma a newwec ijjen ufuṭu x mamec ttwalan inniḍen amun Arifi, i yettwalan nitni ila yettɛic x tmenɣiwt d ijjen arrwina n lebda. S uya, newwi-dd awal x lmewt n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan bac a dd-nemmel ila qa lmewt di Arrif d ijjen lḥajet-nniḍen bla min ttwalan ikulunyaliyen.

lmewt n Ccrif Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan, d ubani-nnes am ijjen bnadem ɣer-s akarizma.

Wenni ɣa iɣren i ikulunyaliyen i dd-neydar sennej, ataf bnadem ad as-ittɣil ila lmewt d tmenɣiwt d ijjen ḥajet i yellan nurmal di Arrif. Maca tɣuri-ya txes ad temmel mamec imsurruf wamun Arifi aked lmewt n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan, ameggaru-ya rrin-tt Irifiyen d ijjen ḥajet tqeddes. Manaya a x-as nessiwel zeg waṭṭas n tɣemriwin, a tent-neydar merra :

Isinaryuten msebḍan x lmewt n Ccrif Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan

Timeslayin ttuɣa zemmrent ad ilint mamec nniḍen, mli wer yuqiɛ umesksi-nni jar Ameẓẓyan d ca n lɛesker Ispuniya, i ttuɣa yellan ɣir d ca n « arrigularis » d Irifiyen i yeppulsen aked Spaniya. Da kul ijjen mamec issawal x lmewt-nnes.

Bab n udlis n « Mexṭuṭ ddil » i yessiwlen la d netta x tmeslayt-a ta. Iqqar ila Ccrif Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan yedwel yesɣata s tqebbal n Arrif, ttɛawanent-t, ittemseksi zi twalat ɣer tenniḍen, ar mani i yemmut ad t-irḥem Rebbi deg umenɣi n Yeɣzar n Kert deg Iqelɛiyen. Nɣin-t ca n ibeyyaɛen ixeddmen aked Ispunya. Ksin-t Ispunya ɣer Mlilet bac ad amnen iwdan ila qa immut. Uca ggin ijjen tmeɣra d tameqqrant d nitni ferḥen s lmewt-nnes. Nnan : lux la d ijjen ma izemmer akid-neɣ imseksi di Arrif.

Figueras d Herrera ttɛawaden belli manayenni yemsar ammu : « Zegga i dd-kkren Ispunya bac ad bedden x iraqqen i yeṭṭfen i ttuɣa Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan ixes a x-asen isug. Iraqqen-a nitni d raqq n Ḥeddu Ɛella Uqeddur, Turiya Ḥamedd Ulad Γanem. Zegga ifṭen Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan i usugi-ya ameqqran n Ispunya, yerra s isuraf ɣer deffer di lefjer n wass 15 may 1912. Maca umi lɛesker Aspanyu ila inhezz zik, Ameẓẓyan yufa ixef-nnes wtin x-as ẓeyyar.

iɣzer n Kert mani yenɣin Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan

Xenni ffɣen-dd ca n imnayen zeg ijjen yeɣzar uca ḍelqen aqerṭas x Ispunya i ten-iẓeyyren kṭer. Manaya yeffeɣ-dd x-as ijjen umseksi d ameqqran deg umenɣi n Kert. Zeg imettinen i ttuɣa din Amɣar bu tɣennant Sidi Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan. Zegga i t-yukez ijjen zeg Irifiyen i yeppulsen, yuzzel isɣuyyu : Ameẓẓyan yemmut… ameẓẓyan yemmut. Ismutti Berenguer tabrat ɣer Mlilet, xenni smuttyen lxecbet-nnes ɣer Mlilet.

Awarni umi fitcaren tiwessaf-nnes mliḥ, wcin lxecbet-nnes i twacunt-nnes i t-imeḍlen di zzawit n Uzɣenɣan. Aselmad Ɛeyyac yeqqar « Umi ifṭen Ccrif Ameẓẓyan ila qa lɛesker-nni d Irifiyen – ttuɣa wer izemmer a kid-sen iseksi niɣ a ten-yanef minzi ila llan s waṭṭas – iraḥ ɣer-sen, ttuɣa ixes akid-sen issiwel, maca ina deɣya nɣin-t bla ma ad as-slen niɣ ad ssnen min iɛna. Zegga fittcaren lxecbet, wwḍen ad ssnen ila qa wenni i nɣin d Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan, uca weyyen-t ɣer Mlilet deɣya bac ad t-fesren i wagdud a t-iẓer ».

Lexbar wis tlata ittawi-t-id ijjen usuḥufi ila ixeddem di ujurnal n « Imparcial » i ttuɣa yellan d asuḥufi weḥḥed-s i yessiwlen x umenɣi n Kert. Netta ila iḥḍar deg uparasyu-nni n tmenɣiwt n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan. Issawal mamec ijjen zeg Irifiyen ttuɣa isɣuyyu d netta yettlaɣa : Wer ccatet bu aqerṭas, Nec d Ameẓẓyan. Awiyet-ayi ɣer lqayed-nnwen. Maca waxxa amenni lɛesker Ispunya wtin aqerṭas, uca nɣin-t.

Ma s tidet d Ameẓẓyan i yemmuten ?

Ispunya waxxa nɣin Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan maca wer uminen ila nɣin-t. Da yettɛawad Alfredo de Rivera amesqad n ujurnal n « Imparcial »belli ijjen zeg Irifiyen i ikunfirman i Ispuniya ila qa wa immuten s tidet d Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan. Minzi ameggaru-ya ila aɣil-nnes dag-s tiyyita n ssyuf. Wami yuzzel umesqad-nni ɣer Spiṭar yufa ila d Ameẓẓyan s ixef-nnes.

Ma Tamɣart n Ccrif, Lḥajja Ḥelluma, teydar-dd ila qa Taspanyut-nni umi qqaren Maria, i ttuɣa yellan d tanecruft ɣer Umeẓẓyan, d nettat i yukzen, zegga i das-snufslen, Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan di Spiṭar. Di lweqt mani ttuɣa s kulci cekken qa d netta.

Maca Lḥakem Aɛeskri n Mlilet Ajiniral Aldave, wer ireyyiḥ (amec i tetteydar tasɣunt n Espana en sus heroes) ar mani i dd-ilaɣa i mmi-s n ɛziz-s n Ccrif, Muḥemmed Lbaraka d ɛziz-s Ḥemmu ḥuma ad ssnen ila qa d wenni netta i yemmuten s tidet.

Zegga i ifitcaren Ispuniya ila d netta, ig yemmuten. Ggin-as ijjen tenfult zemmen dag-s merra min kid-s ufin, umi fitcaren lxecbet-nnes. Di arrimet n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan ufin ca n igezzimen n uqerṭas d ca nniḍen ttwaggen s ixedmiyen. Manaya immal-dd belli ispuniya wer msurrufen ca mliḥ aked lxecbet-nnes.

Akulunil Berenguer yenna belli ufin ɣer Umeẓẓyan ijjen ṭṭampu igga ameknaw Duru yura dag-s « Muḥemmed Lmurabeṭ Ameẓẓyan Ccrif llwah wallyih wa ḥafiḍuh » ɣer daxel i tqularit-nnes dag-s « La ilaha illa llah Muḥemmed arrasul llah ». Ufin akid-s ijjen tejwijt n Mauser d ijjen uziyda n Browning d ttesbiḥ d ijjen weqrab n yilem dag-s Lquran d ameẓẓyan.

D yina i yenɣin n Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan, qa ttbanen-d ismawen-nnsen.

S lmewt n Ccrif Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan yejj-d ijjen lxawi d ameqqran deg Iqelɛiyen. La d iraqqen i ttuɣa isnufsel wḍan adu ifassen n Ispunya ijjen awerni ijjen. Imjahden ttemseksin jar-asen x wi t ɣa ixelfen. Manaya merra s minzi ttuɣa wer din bu ca n ukarizma i ɣa ixelfen Muḥemmed Ameẓẓyan deg wakud-nni.

Asagem: Racid Yeccuti (Tifraz n Arrif, ut. 39, asb. 12-13).

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