19 juin , 2021

Arrif di 122 issgusa: Jar tirelli d uḥwes (1-2)

yura t : Andic Idir di blog n Tadlsa n Arrif

(1)

Amssizwaru

Itass d umegrad a maḥned ad nssij xf tidet n tmeqqant i tuɣa jar Arrif ak timura nneɣni, ra ak Marrakec niɣ ra ak Sbanya d dzayar…

Arrif amec yeqqar Jerman ɛeyyac dg udlis nes «izuran n imenɣan n arrif», ameggaru ya ira yedja Lebda zi tmura itwaḥsaben xf ssiba, ak uɣezdis nneɣni din timura n Rmexzen, Timura n ssiba i di yedja Arrif ak tiqebbar n Atlas Timaziɣin fɣent xf tanbdaḍt tanammast n rmexzen Amarrakeci, minzi amec qqaren aṭṭaṣ n imarzzuten deg yeyyar n tmessna n umezruy belli irifien tefɣen xf mkuy tanbaḍt war tfrinen s ufus nsen, s uya ntaff taymbraṭurect taɛutmanect taturkect tbedd ɣar ibuda n yeɣzar n merwct war tarni ca ɣar zzat minzi iturkien tuɣa ssnen min i ten itrajan zzat nsen.

Taqbitct tarrifect zi rebda tuɣa tessgûr ixf nnes s ixf nnes, da nzemmar ad nini belli Arrif zi rebda tuɣa ɣar s azarug nes d tirelli nnes, u azarug a itadef ra ɣar daxer qaɛ. Mukr taqbict tuɣa war tidef di tmesrayyin n tqebict nneden, s uya taqbict dja ɣar s azarug nes ademsan d usertan u tettwassen s ca n tantala nnes, ra d timɣarin n mkur taqbict kessint deg udem nsent ict tigezzt tsfarrez itent xf temɣarin n tqebbar nneɣni, amec imezdaɣ n Arrif am imaziɣen marra tuɣa sguren ten di tmqanin nsen ak wayawya aṭṭas n izerfan ɣar yedja aẓwar ak islam n tudart nsen.


Agama n Arrif

idurar n arrif ussin d deg yzzermeḍ n tmurt n Marrakec xf uɣezdis nes din Dzayar, anaw n ugama nnes day s aṭṭas n idurar amec iyedja xf tma n yill acemrar anammas tamurt nes tuss d am tesrit n wenẓar zeg yeɣzar n Tmerwct ar tandint n Tinjis, ijyulujien tɣiren belli taseddect n idurar n Siranibada deg yeffus n Ibireya d tmurt n Arrif tuɣa msersaqen qber ma ad msbḍan, tqiccet yuɛran di arrif nettat d Tidɣin u ruɛra nes itakkawḍ ghar 2.465 M, snnej i tzeqqa n yill. 

Taseddect idurar n Arrif temsbḍa xf ten n Aṭlas, day s aṭṭas n izuɣar d taganin n tseklutin n tayḍa d reɛerɛar d ubedjuḍ, maca aḥwes asbbaynu isquccar itt di tferkewt n uḥwes nes xf arrif ak tarwsa n umecraz arrifi d ucmaḍ n tmessi…(1)


Cway zg umezruy yudjɣen

Arrif zi rebda tuɣa day s imezdaɣ teddaren day s, u ggin tasebbabt ak waṭṭas n midden zg uzir umezruy ak ifiniqiyen, ggin tineddam am Rusadir (Mritc ruxa) d tiṭṭawin, awarnas Tinjis di rqan wiss smus qber i tlalit n mass ɛisa.

Awarn as dwren ayyawen i ifinqiyen iqerṭajyen nitni i yedjan zeg iyḍuḍen ijehden maca awarni imenɣan ibunikiyen jar ikerṭajiyen d irumaniyen, d ufuɣ n Ruma teɣreb zg umenɣi nni yedwer arrif zi Mawriṭanya taṭanjit, zi senni yemsar umenɣni tanya jar irifien ak iwandaliyn u ɛawed ak ibizanṭiyen d waɛraben…

Dg ussgwas n 710 n tlalit, ysselmes Sareh mis n Mensur tageldant n Nkur tarrifect, umi udfen irifiyen di ijjed n Muhemmed.

di 1490 ttfen isbunya mritch u ḥwsen tt u teqqim ɣar sen ar djexxu. di 1859 msaren imenɣan n irifiyen ak isbbunya niɣ amec itwassen imenɣan n tiṭṭawin, manaya s tagdelt amezruy unṣib i nzemmar ad naff dg idlisen n awank amarrakeci.

Maca deg umezruy yiriwen n Arrif din aṭṭas n tmsesrayin war tettwassnent ca aṭṭas amecnaw tageldit n temsamant… s minzi imaziɣen s umata war urin ca amezruy nsen s ufus nsen, maca urin xaf sen yennɣni s minzi aṭṭas n tidet truḥ, s uya ntaff aṭṭas n inemzruyen sweddaren tidet u arnin d abarru ixarriqen xf Arrif niɣ xf imaziɣen maḥned ad awḍen ɣar ugmuḍ n min inna unemzruy agranzi Pubel.

Deg umegrd a ad nekk xf tfrekiwin i yekka arrif xf 122 issgusa zeg ussgwas 1889 ar 2011, zg umenɣni n ibeqquyen ak Bucetta lbeɣdadi ar umussu n 20 febrayer d raxart n smuds n irifiyen di iyuren yeɛdan.

Ad nbedd ɣar kuy tferkwt ad as nwc min tzḍahedj, u deg imegrad nneɣni ɛad ad nedwer ɣar awank Arrifi niɣ tamurt n temsamant bac ad nekkes tayyut d tadjest xf umezruy nneɣ n Arrif .

Cwayt zeg umezruy yuḍsen

Di rqan wis 19, tameqqant i yarrwen rmexzen d arrif ira teccur s imenɣan d ukasan (Haines), u deg yeyyar a yeqqar uɣemmis Afransis (l’observateur de moyen orient) deg uṭṭun n wass 21 Desamber 1958 «aqqa irifien zi rqan 17, nitni day sen taɣennant, war qebbren ad xaf sen tiri ca n tenbaḍt ɣar tenni ifarnen s ifassen nsen, s minzi arrif rebda ira yedja ɣar s azarug nes, s uya isseɛda ict n tsekna tzzugart n imenɣan ak rmexzen»

Amec yenna tanya anmzury d umarezzu Afransis August MOUIERRS deg udlis nes “amarrakec ur itwassnen” xf irifiyen manaya: “aẓwar nsen zeg iẓuran iqsḥen deg umaḍal, ijjen n uẓwar ɛemmars ma tuɣa t adu iwnfur, u itɛin aẓwar i yedjan waḥdes deg umaḍal, i war xafs yeqqar umezruy ca n rɛib, igherf a amezyan, tuɣa ɣar s azarug nes di marra tiwula, s uya arifi itxes ammur nnes ar weɛbaḍ»

Irifiyen itxsen tirelli d rmexzen iyxsen ad iḥwes yejja rebda ad inni irifiyen jar asen d imenɣan ujar zi tawala n uzedjid aɛalawi smaɛil, amec rebda rmexzen amec nniɣ di temssizwarut itarra arrif ɣar timura n ssiba u yerenni itraɣa asen s darija «msaxeṭ sidna», awar a i tuɣa ig itesra aṭṭas dduktur arifi muhmed lbeṭṭiwi wami ira yedja d anecruf di ujda deg ussgwas n 1984.

Xmi i ɣad yxecc assgwas n 1810 ad ysqad sriman aṣulṭan aɛalawi ijjen lḥerka ɣar serwan, ad day s isscmeḍ tudrin d redcur, u ad yacar iḥnjaren bac ad ten isqeddec deg umsbudder ak ddaribat i ɣad wcen irifiyen maḥned ad arren tarwa nsen, tabridt taɛeffant isqddec rmexzen d icwaḍ nes nettat s imant nes i ɣad yegg xf ayt wariɣer d tqebbar id as innḍen deg ussgwas ni beɛḍa, minzi irifiyen xenni ugin ad wcen ddaṛiba i rmexzen ḥit dg ukud ni ira tzawa d razaɣ. di 1812 ad yeɛaqeb rmexzen ɣar tnamit nnes tazaykut u ad yareddej redcur amen kmren deg ifarxanen, ayt cicar, serwan (2).

Jar 1813 d 1850 imbilryaliyen igrinziyen, ifransisen, isbunya … ad adfen rmexzen s ca n tira ufus, u da nita yedwer rmexzen ad itmezzaɣ xf taydji imḥwsen xf iftasen n arrif (les plages de Rif) d teyzirin nnes u xminni txsen irifiyen ad wsqen asbanyu zi mritc d min ɣar s yunuḍen, manawya itejja imbiryaliyen s twiza ak rmexzen ad teggen lḥerkat mgal irifiyen d iɣerf arifi amaziɣ, am tenni n uɣarrbu agranzi «djanus» assgwas n 1851 xf iftasen n arrif d lḥerka n rqayed xf teqbict n ayt yeznasen ccix mimun xf takunfidiralect n iqerɛien deg usgwass n 1852, ccix mimun yareni igga iɣarruba ad hḍan mritc d iɣarruba nneɣni it id asen zi tafriqt tabarcant ɣar sen .

Rmexzen ira itraja mermi ma hwan d irifiyen x isbunya bac ad arren tamurt nsen d tasɣart nsen id asen ḥwsen, ntaff itas d ak madrid mgal i wjdir, deg yeyyar a tuɣa din ictn n iḥerka beɛḍa yegg it ccix mimun deg ussgwas n umenɣni n tiṭṭawin (1859) di tawala n unbaḍ n ɛedbarhman ben hicam xf ayt cicar, deg ussgwass ni ad ttun amezruy nsen abarcan akid s carcen deg uraq n tiṭṭawin deg had teddez Madrid azedjif i fas, maca deg wansa ma ad isnimmer rmexzen irifiyen xf twiza nsen akid s, ntaff ineqqreb d akids deg ussgwas n 1864, ad iḍeg (attaquer) xf lḥusima, aḍag a ad idfar ijjen nneɣni di 1871 di tawala n muhmed ben ɛbedrrehman u ad yesslmes lḥassan amezwaru aṭtas n ddiwanat, rebda bac ad yeḥḍa irumiyen zi lbarud n ayt irifien.

Di 1889 ad yɛqeb rmexzen mgal irifiyen umi ugin ad sbedden imenɣiten nnsen ak sbanya, awarn as s kuẓ n issgusa ad tekkar deg iqerɛiyen adu thngart n Mimun n rmuxtar d ɛali arrubiyu umi ibnan isbunya ijjen lqecla tsajja xf umrabeḍ n sidi waryac, deg yeyyar a qqaren inmzruyen isbunya belli sidi waryac tuɣat d tazrut i xf arrzent turjatin nsen.

Rmexzen huma ad issigh fus n twiza irifiyen yuss d am rebda ak uɣezdis n irumiyen, xelli imeggura ya id ibḍan amenɣi ya, xf tigawt n sidi waryac teqqar tazrawct tarrifect izran a:

Umi id iffeɣ urumi / ibuɛ am rɛunsar

Ixarreḍ am rɛenzi / iseyyeḥ xf reɛarɛar (3).


Ar danita ad tsala tanfust n irifiyen ak sidi waryac umi iraḥ umas n lḥassan amezwaru ɣar Matiyas amɣar n mritc ad as issiweḍ tabrat n uwadem n lḥassan.

Xmi ineddakwar ɣar usatal umezruy ad naff belli ɛabdelɛziz netta yedjan d amasay amezwaru xf tiniɣi n ayt ibeqquyen, deg yeyyar ad nedwer ɣar imentilen n tidet i yejjin ɛbdelɛziz ad isqad bucetta lbeɣdadi ḥima ad isfeḍ ayt ubeqquy zi tmurt, umi ira ibeqquyen ttfen tasebbabt n yill u tugha teggen imenɣan ak iɣarruba n fransa d sbanya icten zzay sent, carfen ibeqquyen incraf d irumiyen amec aɣezdis nneɣni ra d netta icref irifiyen, da ggin imsagaren ḥuma ad arxun incraf zi sin iɣezdisa, irifiyen tuɣa aqqa ayen di tkurmut n uẓru n nkur d tinjis, u d wa d tawetilt (condition) issarsen ibeqquyen, awarni i wɛebbez n fransa xf rmexzen isrillett irifiyen zi tinjis, wami tuɣa yugi ɣar umezwaru, di 10 nwanbir 1897(4) s uya maḥned ad yarr aɛeffar ɛabdelɛziz i rmexzen yegga tiniɣni ya i ɣar d nedwer di tafult it id asen.


Tizmilin


1-inskulbideya n wikibedya
2-muḥmed lqjiri, mly muḥend d umussu arrifi, utun n sep-2007
3-teskla tamaziɣt jar tatlayt d tira d umxumber n ussuɣel, lɛumari, tafr : 67
4- leqjiri muḥmed, mly muḥend d umussu arrifi, uttun n sep – 2007

(2)

Tiniɣi n Bucetta d Ɛabdel Ɛaziz i Ayt Ibeqqueyn

Tuss d taqbitc n ibeqquyen deg yeɣzar n yesli d badis, deg yeffus nnes dinni ayt wareyiɣer, xf yeffus usammar ɣar s ibuda ak ayt yeṭṭfet, xf yezzrmeḍ nes ireqqa tt id yill acemrar anammas, agama n teqbitc day s aṭṭaṣ n idurar, mamec id yussa xf izzermeḍ nnes teyzirin iceffaren iddakwaren ɣar taqbict n icebdanen tarrifect, d iɣrem n Mritec yedjan deg ufus n usbanyu ar rextu, ak teyzart n nkur ɣar uɣezdis nneḍen din iɣrem n Sebta d tayzirt n Badis, s uya ntaff taqbict a ɣar s ijjen wansa d amqran u d axatar s wattas, min yejjin ad irin d imassen n yill di sin n rqrun yeɛdan, amec i xafsen yeqqar Muḥmed aznagi deg umegraḍ nnes itwafsaren deg uɣemmis n Numideya isezwel s «ibeqquyen umi ixes rmexzen ad ten iṣfeḍ», u ɛawed yarenni yeqqar belli awar ubuqquy/tabeqquyt ixes ad yini di tutlayt n tmaziɣt atarras i di yedja tabɣest (courage).

Ibeqquyen twassnen s tsebbabt tameḍlant u s tmeqqanin nsen ak iwrubbiyen, timeqqanin i ɣad yirin zg imentilen i ɣad yejjen rmxzen yusm zg wansa nsen ixes ad ten iṣfeḍ zi tmurt n arrif.

Amec nniɣ di tafult yeɛdan belli timeqqanin n ibeqquyen ak i wrubbiyen war ten tuɣi bu mliḥ, min yejjin iwrubbiyen a ad sqaden aṭṭaṣ n tebratin ɣar Ɛabdel ɛaziz, ameggaru y ura d netta ad issek mmis n ɛzizes umi itraɣan irifien «bu-tamment» yedjan isem nes nican Ɛbseram laemrani, da irifiyen ad twsqen, awsaq id as yeggin irifien i bu tamment tuss as d i rmexzen axmi id as marɣḍen tirrugza nsen d cenɛett nes deg ucar, x uyenni ixes rmexzen ad yarr addur i yixf nes s ca tmɣarṣut am tenni ɣad ggen deg wejdir d ibeqquyen.

Umi ittweḍ rmunett n rmexzen d wadaf n Ben crif bubkar d umenɣuy Bucetta lbeɣdadi ɣar yehri (capital) ajdir(1). U bac ad rajan ad ɣar sen taweḍ Rmunett nneɣni yudef ɛzizes n uzedjid bubkar ben crif d rqayed bucetta lbeɣdadi deg istugen (négociation) ak ibeqqueyn maḥned ad arbḥen akud, u ar ami i wfin nican belli ur zemmaren ad adfen deg umenɣni udem-g-udem, mstfaqen iselwayen userdas amxazni ḥuma ad arin ict tebrat jar asen adu isem n Ɛbdel ɛziz ad tɣaren xf ibeqquyen ḥuma ad sɣrḍen u ad ten jjen ad tɣiren belli ɛabdel ɛziz ur d yussi ad xaf sen igg ca imenɣni (guerre) niɣ ad xaf sen inṭeg (attaquer), axmi zeɛma issek d lmḥalla nes bac ad yaff ca n tṛeẓmi (solution) i wmxumber a(2).

Tabrat a tettwaɣar di ssuq n rḥed n aṛṛwaḍi, deg wansa ya tuɣa temsagaren imswqen n tmnaḍt ni, day s iwca umenɣuy lbeɣdadi tam n ussan maḥned ad myannan ayt ibeqquyen xf ca n taṛeẓmi u ad xaf sen arren da nita tuɣa din ijjen d abeqquy isem nes Ɛali lluh (innuri di 1927 awarni mu icrec deg imnɣni usrellit n arrif) iɛiq u ifaq ak tabrat a d tssarrawt tabuctawyect(3) xenni inna asen i ayt n tiremt nes aqqa mara war kid sen tfaqqem, ad jjen timɣarin nwen d tyujjar, tarwa nwem d wagra nwem jar ifassen n iceffaren… u ad tawyem rɛar i teqbict nwem ur tisffeḍ zzman… gget s wawar inu twarat a awarnas gget min txsem(4).

Awarni i wawar a n ɛali lluh, msbḍan ibeqquyen ak yenni ittiqen tabrat tabucttawct d yenni yeggin s wawar n ɛali lluh yina imeggura, fɣen zi teqbicht u itɛin amec inegzu zeg iɣbula umezruy i ɣar neɣ jar ifassen nneɣ belli tuɣa ten d tadersi, fɣen ɣar dzayar (wehran…), tittawin, mritc… ak yenni imezwura idjan d ticcemt, imeqranen nsen itakkawḍen ɣar 200 ayḍ sen ruḥen ɣar wejdir ḥuma ad kemren istugen nsen ak lbeɣdadi amux yeqqar muḥmed leqjiri dg udlis nes «mulay muḥned d umussu arrifi».

Maca deg ujdir u ar ami izzudjen remɣab d imxazniyen ad hwan xf imzadja s urdun (plomb), ad ineɣ abarru zzag sen yenni injmen ad ten awyen ɣar tkurmut n Mugadur (ṣwira rextu) issagwden u dinni i ɣad mten zi min iqqimen.

Awarni i tsekkirt a (opération) n temɣarsut n wejdir ad imutti lbeɣdadi ɣar usurif wis sin ak wenqar n tfuct n wass ni it id faren, ad yeɛda ɣar teqbict n ibeqquyen ad yegg ict tanṭagt d tameqrant ad day s ineɣ imezyanen, iwssura, timɣarin, iḥnjaren, ak min ɣar s iqnen d tukkarḍa d tuccfra n wagra ibeqquyen d uscmeḍ min ira yedjan d azeyza d awraɣ d usekkef (arracher) s tagdelt (en bref) n rmexzen yegga ktar zi uhulukest inazien deg udayen, s tsertit ines n tmurt icmḍen xelli ra d iwssura s temɣarin iffaren dg umrabeḍ n ɛali ben ḥessun deg waḍuz ur njimen.

Igumaḍ (les résultats) n tanṭagt a tamxaznect xf Arrif ira djan d iɛeffanen s wattas ḍa inni iqqimen dfaren aytmat sen ɣar sidi mheydya id yussin jar Mɣenya d Sɛeydya, mamec ṭfen ktar zi 400 ubeqquy ɣar tkurmut n mugadur azgen amqran nsen immut, u inneɣi nnufsren awarni i wɛebbez n Fransa xf rmexzen amarrakec

Amec qqaren inemzryen belli umi id yarra aneɣmis ɛabdel ɛziz tekkar tumert dg iɣrem nnes, maca wenni yeggin ca ad ixedjes ujar mara yegga ca di tesɣart irifien ammu deg ijjen wass irifien ra djan deg yiɣrem ageldan (palace royal) n muḥmed ben yussef, u tuɣa din bucetta lbeɣdadi fus n ɛzizes n muḥmed wis smuds, umi id arrin taynit irifien ad xaf s kebben ɣasulina ad as wcen timessi, scmḍen tt amen yeddar yesɣuyu jar tittawin n uzedjis ines, xenni iffeɣ d bac ad isnjem axeddam n rmexzen maca anbaḍ n waydud ira yuyar di arrimet nes(5).

Amec nezra belli irifien zi rebda tuɣa txsen ad qerɛen xf uḥwes zi tmurt nsen, maca di twarat d ict maḥned ad kid sen ibedd rmexzen u ad kid sen iswiza it ass d Lbeda magl nsen, minzi ɣar umeggar netta s imant nes d aḥwes, xezzaren ɣar s irifien amec xezzaren ɣar usbanyu niɣ ɣar ca n ijjen zi ṭṭarf d anfur (étranger).

Tigawin a i tuɣa ismunen Rmexzen d arrif, ijja asɣun n uflas (confiance) ad itwaqqes (ad itwabby) u danita yeqqar Jerman ɛeyyac deg udlis nes iẓuran n umenɣi di Arrif di tafart nes tis 107 manaya «…idja tacan irifien s tiqesst iwezwizen zeg ijjen uɣezdis, d ussuter d ussitem issersen deg udem n izedjiden iɛalawien iruḥ zeg ijjen uɣezdis nneden, deg umeggaru n rqarn (19) tuɣa idakkwar d rmexzen maḥned ad ineɣ iwdan d wareddej n tzedduɣin, s umentil n imneɣni ira yedjan jar irifien ak usbanyu, wac nzemmar ad nini belli irifyen xsen war tirin bu d imarrak?».

S minzi irifiyen war xsen ca ad irin d imarrak amec yenna Jerman ɛeyyac u amec nan nattas i inemzruyen d mulay muḥned s imant nnes, dwren irifien d igrawliyen u d imɣewɣen aked mkuy ca umussu yuss d d amaynu ixes asmskel (changement), s uya nzemmar ad negzu (ad nfhem) mayemmi ggin fus nsen deg ufus n bu-teɣyuct niɣ amec i tuɣa id-as itraɣa rmexzen rrugi, u maɣar yegga taqsebt n serwan d ansa nes d ihri mgal i Fas, manawya i xf ɣas nesswier di tafult it id asen.

Tizmilin

(1): M-leqjiri, Mulay muhned d umussu arrifi, Tawiza uttun 127

(2): D.hart the aith waryaghar of moroccan rif, tuscar of arizona press, 1976, p 355

(3): m-leqjiri, Mulay muhned d umussu arrifi, tawiza uttun 127

(4): العربي اللوه، الكفاح في منعال أبطال الشمال، تطوان 1982، ص 94

(5): محمد أزناكي، إبقوين عندما قرر المخزن إبادتهم، ج نوميديا ع 8 ص 7

Amaynu

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