«Al ami i d-ssefin waman » … Ta d tḥajit n wami yettwagg ugelmam n “Martcika”

Agelmam n Martcika niɣ amek ittwasemma ɣer Imezdaɣ n Nnaḍur s “lebḥer ameẓẓyan” i yella Ispunya ksin isem-a rrin-t ɣer Tespanyut “Mar chica”,  mamec nettaf ismawen-nniḍen i yeksin ugelmam-a ameknaw “ssebxet n Buɛerg”.

Yus-d ugelmam-a zzat i temdint n Nnaḍur; d acettiḍ n tmurt  i t-ibeṭṭan x lebḥer n umiditirani, ibedda-d zeg Warekman, ittakk°aḍ ar Buqana (Ayt Nsar).

Tnayen n tqebbal i d-ittsejjan x ugelmam-a (Iqelɛiyen d Ikebdanen) tɛawaden ijjen tḥajit n mamec ittwagg ugelmam, al ami yella. Ijjen ameknaw Nureddin Cawqi, itterran taynit i umezruy n wemkan-a, iqqar belli “aqqa din ijjen tḥajit ittɛawaden iwessura n Iqelɛiyen d Ikebdanen i iqqaren belli ssebxet n Buɛerg ttuɣa wer telli deg wemkan-nnes yiḍ-a, maca ttuɣa-tt deg ijjen uraq-nniḍen wer igg°ij ca, amkan-a ila yella d ca n tmura n leɛrasi d tfellaḥt”.

Yerni Cawqi inna deg wawal-nnes i jjurnal n “Bannasa” belli tḥajit-a teqqar ɛawed “acettiḍ-nni ibeṭṭan yiḍ-a aman n ugelmam n lebḥer ameẓẓyan (Martcika) aked waman n umiditirani, ttuɣa-t d abrid i itteqnen Ikebdanen s Mlilet, ggin-tt Ikebdanen d abrid ihwen, maḥend ad awḍen deɣya ɣer temdint mani ttkunen Ispuniya.”

Iḍfar iqqar belli tḥajit tettɛawad belli “deg ijjen wass mani ttuɣa iccat wenẓar mseqqem, ffyen-d waman n umiditirani x uzɣar n Buɛerg d ifutas n Ikebdanen, ula d ifutas n Iqelɛiyen, maca ɛdan iseggusa x uyenni, idwel lebḥer ɣer wemkan-nnes, maca ijja awern-as ijjen ucettiḍ n tmurt ibeṭṭan jar tnayen-a n lebḥurat, yejj-d ijjen ugelmam ittwassnen s yismawen-a msebḍan…”

Inna Cawqi belli isem n “lebḥer ameẓẓyan” d wenni ittwassnen d amezwaru ɣer imezdaɣ, zi senni smuttyen-t Ispunya ɣer Marchica. Irni issiwel-d “wami dewlen waman-nnes neqsen, tedwel d ijjen uberyuḍ, ttuɣa imezdaɣ i das-yudsen ttekksen-d zzag-s tisent, znuzan-tt i tqebbal-nniḍen.”

“Wer ɛdin ca n iseggusa ɛawed x tmeslayt tamezwarut, al ami d-yeɛqeb waffay-nni n waman i kid-s iwwin aṭṭas n ledcur, tenɣa merra iwdan […] ddegg-a n tmeslayt tteɛqalen-t midden s uwenni n “al ami fesyen waman.”

Cawqi inna belli tiḥuja-nni walli ttasent-id amenni waha, waxxa wer ttwazemmemnt, x manaya din tnayen n yiwdan i d-iksin tḥajit-a ssiwlen x-as, amezwaru-nnsen iydar-it-id Auguste Mouliéras, ittwazzmemn deg udlis n “Lmuɣrib i wer ittwassnen – azgen amezwaru, twafit n Arrif 1894/1872”, i d-issuɣel Ɛezzdin Lxeṭṭabi ɣer Teɛrabt. Yus-d deg udlis-a “Nitni (zeɛma iwessura n Iqelɛiyen) ttɛawaden belli di zzman i yeɛdan, lebḥer ttuɣa yedla merra izeɣran, zi senni dewlen waman ar igmiren n Mlilet, yejja awern-as timura ccurent s tmellaḥt ar imiḍer n Wedrar n Ayt Ciker.

“Ittwagg ijjen uḥfur, netta d agelmam n Buɛerg ittwasemman s lebḥer n Imeẓẓujen niɣ ssebxet n Buɣemrun”, “Di zzman-ni ila din din ijjen uceṭṭiḍ n tmurt ibeṭṭan agelmam aked lebḥer, zedɣen-t xirebbi n twacunin la s tqiḍan la s tudrin, al ami ggin din ijjen ddcar d ameqqran, merra ttuɣa xeddmen di tmellaḥt znuzant i tqebbal n Arrif, amek tteggen aked iselman, maca deg ijjen llilet i di ttuɣa assam d wajjaj d tḥaryaḍin, udfent-id ca n tesfay acettiḍ-nni, weyyen waman merra mayen ufin zzat-sen d tudrin d irgazen d temɣarin d iḥenjiren d wulli, ammu ɣerqen tlata n ledcur, acettiḍ-nni iweḍḍer tnayen iseggusa adu waman, awerni tnayen ma tlata n iseggusa iban-d ucettiḍ-nni zegga dewlan waman ɣer deffer.

Tḥajit tis tnayen, tus-d tzemmem deg udlis n Rafael fernández de castro y pedrera umi igga isem n “El Rif- territorios de Galaia y Quebdana” yeqqar netta “deg useggas n 1887, tessuḍ-d ijjen tḥeryaḍt d tacerqit di tarya n Restinga, udfen waman lebḥer ameẓẓyan, deg ijjen llilet, sseffyen-d waman x luluf n ihiktaren”.

Irni inna “teqqar tḥajit n imezdaɣ i ila izeddɣen Mlilet di zzman-nni… aṭṭas n midden i yemmuten mani aman dlin x ijjen ddcar d ameqqran, zeddɣen dag-s inni ixeddmen tamellaḥt, zi senni d tḥaryaḍin ttsuḍent-id kul twalat… Agelmam-nni iqqim amenni zeg useggas n 1906 wer zzag-s uẓiɣen waman-nnes”.

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