29 novembre , 2021

Adaf n irifiyen deg wemsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen

Adaf n irifiyen deg wemsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen (1936-1939).
Zeg yezlan n tmaziɣt n Arif

Irifiyen ttuɣa-ten aked uɣezdis n Franku deg wemseqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen, di mai 1939. (Berliner Verlag / Archiv / dpa-Zentralbild / DPA)

Yura-t dduktur Musṭafa Lɣadiri
Iturjem-it: Ɛebdelwaḥed Ḥennu

Tamessizwarut:

Mala nexs ad nesserɣ tifawin x tuntimt (documentation) n yezlan, a nili nettɛawad i wawal waha, minzi din aṭṭas n tɣuriwin d terzutin[1] ttwaggent deg uɣezdis-a, sseknent-aneɣ mamek zemmren yezlan a daneɣ-ssiwḍen ɣer waṭṭas zi tidet n umezruy. Amezruy i zemmreɣ ad iniɣ, belli wer x-as ssiwlen ca yinni i yuran, ya s neɛmada niɣ amenni i dd-tusa waha. Maca waxxa amenni, ad sserseɣ ca n iseqsiten deg wadaf n terzut-a, am : Ma wer nzemmer a dd-nessufeɣ tidet zeg yezlan n tmaziɣt, amen tt-dd-ssufɣen yinniḍen deg waṭṭas n tutlayin nniḍen? Ɛawed, min ɛnan yegmiren n tuntimt (documentation) jer yezlan d tidet n umezruy, awaren i wefran d ubeṭṭu?

Twarrit x iseqsiten-a, a tt-nejj i min dd-ɣa yasen di terzut-a.

I. Amsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen.

Mamek i nessen, aqqa amseksi-ya ttuɣa-t d aẓunfeḍ n iɛeskriyen, i ttuɣa yellan awaren i ujiniral Franku, kunṭra i unegraw n tegdudant tasermunt n Spanya (République socialiste Espagnol). Aẓunfeḍ-a yebda zi jjihet n ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk i ttuɣa yellan adu ifassen n Useppanyu. Beddu n manaya ttuɣa-t zi 17 yulyuz 1936[2].

Amussu n udiktatur ajiniral Franku ttuɣa ibedd x lɛesker n usppanyu d irifiyen, d yinni i dd-yusin ɛawed zi tqebbal n Ayt Baɛemran. Wer nettettu ca aswizi i ttuɣa kid-s tteggen inegrawen idiktaturen deg Uruppa, am unegraw anazi n Hitlir d unegraw afacisti n Masulini. S uya, amussu afrankawi (zi Franku) yessexdem tixentrisin d tenḥiseyyin maḥend a kid-s yessidef irifiyen ad pulsen[3]. Manaya s weswizi aked yemɣaren n tqebbal d isertanen (isiyaseyyen) imeqqranen, d yewdan n ddin di jjihet n Arif.  Ujar inni i yewtin tacarribt i umussu afrankawi, shewnen x-as umi reẓmen tawwurt n upules, ɛanen iwdan maḥend ad adfen deg umussu-ya i yeẓẓunefḍen x unegraw agdudan[4].

Nzemmer ad nessen zi nnumrawat-a; mamek iɛemmed unegraw afrankawi x tarwa n Arif, d mamek i ten-yessexdem s uɛawen n inewwura n unegraw-nnes, deg yijjen umenɣi nitni yigg°ej x-asen igg°jen x-as.

Yebda yessadaf inni i umi qqaren arrigularis (Regulares) di lɛesker n useppanyu, d yinni i umi qqaren “lemḥella lxalifeyya” (iɛsekreyyen i ttuɣa aked xlifa n ujellid di ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk). Rni-dd ɣer-sen asidef n irifiyen i ttuɣa wer yessinen walu x lɛesker d umenɣi, ssidfen-ten zi beddu n wass wiss tnayen awaren i umi dd-iban uẓunfeḍ kunṭra i unegraw agdudan (beddu zi 18 yulyuz 1936). Acrak n imerrak, d tarwa n Arif mala nexs a nini, ttuɣa-t am min tettwalam:[5]

AkudRegularesMḥellainni i ipulsen d imaynutenTamuttert (total)
Zi 18/07/1936 Ar 31/07/1936  5000    3000    1172    9172    
Zi 01/08/1936 Ar 31/08/1936  8000    5000    8000    21000    
Zi 01/09/1936 Ar 31/12/1936  19000    10500    18988    48488    
Zi 01/01/1937 Ar 31/12/1937  28500    14000    21500    64000    
Zi 01/01/1938 Ar 31/12/1938  32000    19000    17500    68500    
Zi 01/01/1939 Ar 31/03/1939  3300019500450057000
Tamuttert (total)1255007100071600268162
Tigmiḍi n wecrak46,61%26,47%26,70%

Di min yeqqnen ɣer min dd-yiwi wemseksi-ya:

Inni wer ibinen1700
Inni yemmuten zegga yezmen5300
Ineɛḍab4500
Inni iyezmen39125
Inni i dd-yennufeslen zegga isala wemseksi26500
Inni i yeqqimen di lɛesker zegga isala wemseksi26000
Tamuttert (total)268152

D ta d tayafut (Résultat) n wecrak n irifiyen deg wemsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen, d manaya i yellan x yinni i yemmuten d yinni i yenɛeḍben d yinni wer ibinen d yinni iyezmen, amen dd-yusa deg yesgamen (Sources) manis i dd-nugem manaya.

II. Aṭṭas n irifiyen i ipulsen, mayemmi?

Wer yehwin ca ad nergeb x mayemmi i cerken tarwa n Lmerruk zi Arif deg umenɣi-ya i yellan jer isppunya aked uɣezdis n umussu afrankawi, minzi din aṭṭas n texzarin (lxezrat) ɣer usentel-a, ttemsebḍant aked wemsebḍi n manis i dd-ixezzar wenni isserɣen tfawt x usentel-a, d wemkan-nnes anamun (Social), d wemkan-nnes asertan (Politique), niɣ mani ittaf tizi-nnes. S uya a negg tizemmar maḥend a nefsar ca zi texzarin-a, qbel ma a nsel i min nnan yezlan n Arif deg uɣezdis-a.

  • Tixzarin n ca n yemɣaren zeg umussu anamun di ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk i ttuɣa yeddren di llṭa-nni, mxumblen aked temsarin n umenɣi-ya, zemmemen manayenni s iɣaniben (stilawat) nsen.

Zeg yina, dinni mass Ɛebdelxaleq Ṭṭurris, amessugur n ujurnal “Al ḥurriyya” (Directeur du journal Al ḥurriyya), netta i yennan amen ttuɣa timessi n wemseksi tetteḥduduq: “Wer izemmer umezruy a daneɣ-yini aqqa apules n imerrak aked inamuren[6] ttuɣa-t x tenɛacin, minzi tinɛacin wer xessent inniḍen (igdudanen[7]). Nzemmar a nini aqqa inniḍen ttuɣa-ten ɛad d isexxayen x yina. Imerrak ruḥen ad pulsen minzi ttuɣa ttwalan aqqa taɣawsa n inamuren d ijjen tɣawsa-nsen ula d nitni. Ɛawed wer nettettu aqqa igdudanen (Rojos) ttuɣa akid-sen aberru n iɛeskriyen d ifransisen. S uya, imerrak ufin-tt d tasebḥant i nitni ḥuma ad hwan x yeɛdawen-nsen (ifransisen) amen llan aked umussu n Franku. Mamek wer nettettu ɛawed aqqa imerrak gg°den ad yemfeccar uxarres n icuyuɛiyen. D manaya i ten-yejjin ad adfen deg umenɣi-ya, minzi gg°den x ddin nsen…”[8].

Maca Lmekki Nnasiri, amessugur n ujurnal: “Al waḥda lmeɣribeyya” yeqqar ula d netta: “Agdud i ttuɣa yemfeccaren x ddcurat d tqebbal udfen aṭṭas n ayt bab-nnes aked umussu anamur asppanyu. Manaya wer t-ggin x tenɛacin, niɣ d tarewla zi ẓẓelḍ. Minzi ẓẓelḍ mqetmaren akid-s, mseksin akid-s aṭṭas zeggami. Maca adaf-nsen yus-dd awaren i umi ufin belli ta d ijjen tɣawsa deg-s min isebḥen i Lmerruk.”[9]

Nzemmer a nesmun tixzarin n Ɛebdelxaleq Ṭṭurris d Lmekki Nnasiri di tneqqiḍin-a:

  • Aqqa imerrak udfen aked umussu afrankawi, minzi igdudanen ttuɣa-ten d icuyuɛiyen, minzi tacuyuɛit wer tettweqqer taykit i yeqqnen ɣer ddin n imerrak.
  • Wer yelli d ẓẓelḍ i ten-yejjin ad adfen aked umussu n Franku, mli ttuɣa d ttmenyat i ten-yecqan ili swizan aked yegdudanen i ttuɣa dasent-iḍellqen kter zeg yinniḍen.
  • Amenɣi aked yegdudanen d ijjen umenɣi x tcuyuɛit. S uya, manaya deg-s min isebḥen i Lmerruk amen yenna Lmekki Nnasiri.

Aked uɣezdis n texzarin-a, a nessers iseqsiten-a:

Imerrak i ipulsen ttuɣa ssnen umi qqaren amussu anamur aseppanyu? Ujar malla nessen aqqa azgen ameqqran zeg-sen, niɣ ɛlayen merra idsen, ttuɣa-ten d iqubbaniyen jer 15 d 25 n iseggusa?

Imerrak amen kemlen, ttuɣa ssnen umi qqaren tacuyuɛit niɣ d mani tneddeh? Niɣ ɛawed zeɛma taykit s ddin ɣer imerrak ttuɣa ttweqqaren-tt di llṭa n tgeldit taseppanyut qbel ma a tt-ɣeḍlen yegdudanen, maḥend a nini aqqa imerrak bedden aked Franku minzi ttuɣa ccaten aqerṭas x ddin-nsen? Maɣar Franku zi mant-nnes ttuɣa wer yelli ca zeg yemcumen i yessizzlen idammen n irifiyen di llṭa n tegrawla n Muḥemmed n Ɛebdlekrim LxeṬṬabi? Maɣar wer yelli d netta i yennan awarn i usali n wemseksi n Arif asegg°as n 1926: “Aqqa neccin neggur zeg wazzerg n umenɣi, maca ulawen-nneɣ deg-sen taykit s wareyyeḍ n yemcumen (yeqsed tarwa n Arif), ijj n wareyyeḍ ɛemmers wer t ẓrin”[10] Al mani nzemmar a naweḍ a nini aqqa imezdaɣ n ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk i ipulsen aked Franku d manaya i ten yejjin ad adfen deg umenɣi aked yegdudanen ?

Iseqsiten-a wer yelli nessers-iten maḥend a xaf-sen nerr, maca ḥuma a deg-sen nxemmem, a zeg-sen nerzu x tidet n umezruy iweḍḍren.

Awal i nnan Lmekki Nnasiri d ɛebdelxaleq Ṭṭurris,  yeffuk a nesseḥḍer tabridt tamezrayt (zeg umezruy) d tebridt tanamunt i di yettwanna min nnan. Minzi manayenni yettwanna amen ttuɣa amseksi ɛlayen yiweḍ ɣer uneggar-nnes. Mass ṬṬurris, ttuɣa yedwel d amɣar n ukabar n usegged anamur حزب الإصلاح الوطني, yewca-s Franku ttesriḥ ḥuma a t-sbedden x iḍaren-nnes (akabar) deg usegg°as amezwaru n wemsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen (Nican ; deg  uyur n tɣuccet 1936). Mamek das-yewca ttesriḥ ɛawed maḥend ad yegg ajurnal “Al ḥurreyya” (tilelli). Mamek ɛawed Franku imeyyek x yiḍennaḍ-nnes amasuni, di llṭa mani nettaf amussu afrankawi yiwi tamnawt i merra imasuniyen iseppunya, di ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk kter.[11]

Lmekki Nnasiri ula d netta yufa tizi-nnes deg ubani n umussu afrankawi. Minzi netta yemmutti-dd zeg wemkan i xef ttuɣa tqebbeḍ Fransa di Lmerruk, yedwel d amessugur n ujurnal “Al waḥda Al maɣribiya” (Tamunt tamerrukt), d amessugur ɛawed n yijjen sekwila n uselmed di Tiṭṭawn i ttuɣa iḍeffren i Useppanyu. Aɣimi-nnes di Tiṭṭawin ttuɣa-t am yijjen werwal d asertan awaren i umi t-idd-tenfa Fransa zi Arrbaṭ.

S uya, tiwciwin-a, yeffuk a tent-yegg di lbal-nnes wenni ikessin s min nnan Lmekki Nasiri d ɛebdelxaleq Ṭṭurris.

Din ɛawed iwdan ɣer-sen amkan-nsen di tsertit d tmessna, ina d yemɣaren n imukan mani i ttuɣa aseppanyu, ruḥen deg webrid d ijj i di ruḥen Nnasiri d Ṭṭurris. Zeg-sen lefqih “Ḥmed Rrhuni atiṭwani”, amen dd-yusa deg udlis-nnes “amuddu amekki” الرحلة المكية i yura asegg°as n 1937, umi i t-yessekk unegraw n Franku ɣer Mekka aked ca n lḥujjaj d imerrak –ttuɣa ɛad timessi n wemsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen tetteḥduduq- . lexdenni yessek awal i Franku di temdint n Salamanka ass n 19 yennayer 1937, yenna-s: “A mass arrayes (Président) amezduɣ amatay (Le résident général) Juan Beygbeder Atienza[12] yessekk-ayi s yisem-nwem x uzellif n lḥujjaj i yettḥijjan asegg°as-a s lxir-nwem, maḥend ad ssiwḍeɣ aneɣmis i umaḍal ameslem, a dasen-iniɣ aqqa kenniw ttexsem imselmen, tesmeɣɣaram zeg-sen”…

Yerra-dd x-as Franku yenna-s: “Araqeṭṭ umi truḥed, ssiweḍ i merra imselmen i yellan di tmurt-nni tamrabeḍt belli necc ttweqqreɣ-ten. Mamek ma yegga umeslem jjem-t ad yessen belli necc d ameddukel n yemselmen s wul-inu, aqqa a dasen-swejdeɣ tamezgida n Qurṭuba d min das-dd-yennḍen maḥend ad tili am Lkeɛba, ttasen-dd ɣer-s zi mkul amkan, ad ɛebden ad ɣren…”[13]

Awal-a yeccat deg wuru i udiktatur d wespules-nnes i ymerrak maḥend ad adfen deg yijj n umenɣi wer yelli-nsen. Mamek nettaf Franku yenya x ddin ḥuma a das-wcen afus lefquyat d lecyux n yemrabḍen d yemɣaren n tqebbal, ḥuma ad amaren iwdan ad pulsen s minzi mma. Min dd-yiwi lefqih Rrhuni n wawal n Franku umi yegga ixf-nnes ittexs tameslemt; isskan-aneɣ tidet n min nenna. Ujar n manaya, Franku ad yejj al dd-ɣa rewwḥen yina zi lḥijj, uca ad yessiwel aked imerrak a dasen-yewc awal belli aqa din aṭṭas n min isebḥen ittraja-ten. Ɣer uneggaru, manaya yeqqim mɣar d awal waha.

Zi manaya, nettaf umi yelqa imerrak i dd-iɛeqben zi lḥijj ɣer temdint n Icbilya ass n 13 ibrir 1937, uca yenna-sen: “… d kenniw ifehmen mliḥ mayemmi nudef deg umenɣi-ya. Xmi dd-ɣa lellcent tnewwacin n sslamet, a dawem-newc tinni i yellan d tisebḥanin qeɛ”.

Alik awem aḍris mamek dd-yusa s tseppanyut:

« Sois los que major comprendeis esta lucha. Y cuando florezcan los rosales de la paz, os entregaremɛs mejores flores »[14].

Franku ttuɣa yexs s wawal-a yufsen s teḥraymit, a kid-s swizan yewdan n ddin d imeqqranen n yinni yellan deg umussu anamur di ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk, ḥuma ad ɛanen tarwa n Arif ad pulsen, a kid-sen ilin x uɣezdis arendad i yegdudanen (izegg°aɣen/ Rojos). D manaya i yejjin aṭṭas n yewdan deg umussu anamur ad ẓẓuɣɣren awal-nnes, a zeg-s fehmen belli yexs ad yewc tasimant (L’indépendance) i ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk xmi ɣa isala umenɣi, niɣ malla walu ad yejj jjihet-a ad tessugur ixf-nnes s yexf-nnes.

Maca Franku ttuɣa yesskan udem asebḥan maḥend ad iban aqqa ittexs tenni tasebḥant i tarwa n ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk. S uya, yenya x ddin. Nettaf-it deg yimal-nnes (asegÅas n 1938), yessekk ca n tarbiɛt nniḍen ɣer Mekka ḥuma ad ḥijjen. Yessekk x uzellif-nsen Ccix Mrabbih Rabbu d amɣar ittbedda x min yeqqnen ɣer yiman d ddin. Mamek yessekk ɛawed Muḥemmed n Ɛmar Uccen d lqebṭan n tɣarrabut.

Yessiwel akid-sen lexdenni umezduɣ amatay (Le résident général) ajiniral Juan Beygbeder, d umeqqran (الصدر الأعظم) Ḥmed Leɣnimi Slimani, zi min yenna umezduɣ amatay : « Yeffuk ad tessnem ay imselmen aqqa ajiniral Franku yiwiy-awem-dd taɣerrabut-a i kenniw maḥend ad tḥijjem, iwa xzarem mliḥ di lxir i kid-wem ittegg d weswizi i kid-wem ittegg ɣer ddin-nwem. Ɛawdem manaya i ayetma-twem imselmen g Lḥijaz d mani nneɣni. Yeffuk ad tessnem aqqa ccix-nwem di tɣerrabut netta d : Mrabbih Rabbu, amɣar ittbeddan x usuger-nnes netta d Muḥemmed n Ɛmar Uccen Ssɛidi … »[15]

Ttuɣa ajiniral Franku lebda yessadaf ddin, yennay x-as maḥend a kid-s swizan yemɣaren n ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk. Ḥuma a dd-asen zi merra ddcurat d tqebbal ad pulsen. D manaya i yesskanen belli wer ɣer-sen telli tidet ɣer yinni i yeqqaren aqqa imerrak cerken deg umenɣi n Seppanya minzi ufin di manayenni nnfeɛ i tmurt-nsen d ddin-nsen.

Aṭṭas zeg yinni ipulsen uca iceṭṭ deg-sen buḥbel, d twacunin-nsen i yellan ɛad di tudert, ssiwlen, nnan aqqa imerrak ttuɣa wer ssinen umi qqaren tacuyuɛit, ttuɣa wer ssinen ula d minxef yettwagg umenɣi-ya i di udfen amen wer ssinen mani ttraḥen.[16]

III. Izlan n tmaziɣt d wemseksi Aseppanyu.

Awarn i umi nesserɣ cwayt tifawin x mecḥal i ipulsen deg umenɣi-ya zi tarwa n Lmerruk, d min nnan ca n imariren d yewdan n ddin x manaya, d min yejjin imerrak ad pulsen aked uɣezdis n umussu n Franku i yeẓẓunfḍen x unegraw agdudan, lexxu a nemmutti ɣer yezlan n tmaziɣt di Arif maḥend a nessen min yennuffren adu umenɣi-ya i di mmuten waṭṭas n yewdan, bla ma nessiwel x yinni iyezmen d ineɛḍab d min dd-yejja awarn-as umenɣi-ya n igujilen deg isegg°usa n laẒ d ca i wer yellin.

1- Asehnaci n uzemmem n yenni i ɣa ipulsen d usekki-nsen ɣer wazzerg n umenɣi.

Yessiwel yezli x usehnaci n uzemmem deg upules, alami wenni iruḥen wer yeftin ula d aftan melmi yettwazemmem, wer yessin ula d melmi dd-yegga llayhennik x yemma-s, niɣ d melmi yeẓwa lebḥer ɣer ujemmaḍ-in, alami yufa ixf-nnes deg wazzerg n umenɣi :

« Rebbi melmi nura, rebbi melmi neẓwa ?
Rebbi melmi nenna : Llayhennik a yemm ? »

Waxxa munent temsarin deg yezli d ijj, maca nettaf deg-s aṭṭas n tmesskanin i wer ittemsebḍin ca x min dd-yusin deg uṭablu amesmennaw (tableau statistique) n yenni ipulsen. Inni i ttuɣa ittadfen d luluf deg yijjen llṭa d aquḍaḍ, bla ma a ten-slemden mamek ɣa ggen deg wemseksi.

Ha izli yesraqqa tifawin x iḥenjiren d imeẓẓyanen ttadfen ad pulsen amen ssnen zi qbel min ten ittrajan :

 « Munen-dd iḥenjiren, ssersen-dd ssineyyet
Neccin aqqa nugur ɣer Seppanya a nemmet”

Timessna-ya nsen i min ten-ittrajan urid d tirja waha, niɣ d ahardef. Ta d tidet ẓrin-tt, slan-tt x yenni i umi yeffeɣ buḥbel deg wussan-nsen imezwura mɣar ggin aḍar di Spanya.

Timsarin d tinni s yexf-nsent, ttɛawadent di tiṭṭawin n urifi i iruḥen ad ipules. Xmi ixezzar ɣer tɣerruba i t-yettrajan di lmers n Mrič, ittwala deg-sent aɛerbub n min t-ittrajan; Ittwala deg iɣerruba n irumiyen tamettant teggur x iḍaren-nnes amen ɛad wer yeẓwi aman:

   “Aɣerrabu n urumu di mrič yettraja-yi
Lalla tamurt-inu ɛemmers teẓrid-ayi »

Izemmar ad yesseqsa wenni ɣa yeɣren niɣ ad isel izli-ya; Mayemmi ɣa yeẓwa uɛsekri amerruk ɣer Spanya ḥuma ad yecrek deg umenɣi-ya, umi netta yessen belli ad yemmet ad yemmet?.

Tamrarut x useqsi am wa nzemmer a tt-naf deg yezlan am yina. Alik-awem ijjen yezli yettwaksi x yilsawen n iḥudriyen irifiyen i yeggin ad raḥen ɣer Spanya, ssawalen x laẓ d lazaɣ ileqfen tamurt-nsen, alami tedwel wer dd-tesɣemmiy mɣar asennan d tzegg°art. Minzi iḥudriyen i tt-ɣa ixedmen ɛerqen ɣer Ddzayer awaren i umenɣi n Arif. Rni ɣer manaya, aqqa tamurt n tfellaḥt semḥen deg-s, d zzerriɛet tudrus, d ifellaḥen ffɣen x-asen s leɛcur:

 “ Neccin nura a neẓwa, wer dd-nejji bu tezwart
Lalla tamurt-nneɣ ẓẓun deg-m tazegg°art”

Aɣemmuy n usennan d tzegg°art yeqqar belli tamurt semḥen deg-s, wer din yelli wi tt-ɣa ikerzen ula d wit tt-ɣa ixedmen, niɣ aqqa yekka x-as lazaɣ aṭṭas alami tedwel tzegg°art tegga tisefsafin, tterra tili x tmurt ijerden.

2- Min yejjin tarwa n Arif ad pulsen?

A nili nettmarḍen waha malla nenna aqqa tarwa n Arif cerken deg umenɣi Aseppanyu maḥend ad mɛutrusen aked unegraw agdudan i yellan d acuyuɛi. Niɣ aqqa acrak deg umenɣi-ya deg-s nnfeɛ i tmurt-nsen d tarwa n tmurt-nsen. Niɣ malla nenna aqqa imerrak ruḥen ad mɛutrusen aked Fransa minzi nettat teswiza aked yegdudanen. Niɣ ruḥen ad swizan aked unegraw n Franku, minzi netta ittɛawan imselmen, ittas-dd akid-sen. Niɣ aqqa Franku yessekk tarbiɛt n yewdan ad ḥijjen minzi ittexs min yecnan i tmeslemt d yemselmen. Niɣ aqqa ittexs tameslemt s wul-nnes amen nnan yewdan-nni i dd-idewlen zi lḥijj awaren i umi ten-yessekk.

A nili d ibuhaliyen malla numen illa aqqa Franku ttuɣa izemmer ad yebḍa x imerrak tinewwacin xmi ɣa tlellec tsejjart n wefra. Maɣar walli aɛsekri-ya d netta i yenɣin imerrak, yeslaẓ-iten 30 n isegg°usa, ahda i min yegga d ɣezzu di tarwa n tmurt-nnes isppunya!.

Malla nexs a nessen tidet n upules n imerraak aked uɣezdis n Franku, d mayemmi dd-yusa, yeffuk a nedwel ɣer yezlan i yeqqimen ɛad ttmeksin x yelsawen n yinni yeddren di llṭa-nni; Timɣarin d iwessura. Zeg-sen izli-ya i dd-yusin x yiles n yijjen uḥudri yegga ad ipules aked Franku, uca yetter zeg yemma-s a t-tejj; ijjt ad tt-yecc, ijjt nniḍen a das-tt-dd-yessekk zi Spanya:

 « Jj ayi a yemma jj ayi ad bulseɣ
Ijjen tbuyut a tt-cceɣ, ijjt a m-tt-dd-sqadeɣ”

Awal n uḥudri i yettettren zeg yemma-s a t-tejj ad ipules x tnayen n tbuyutin; netta d ijjen wawal x laẓ d lazaɣ i yekkin x Arif di llṭa n umenɣi-nni. A nini mamek nniḍen, aqqa aḥudri-ya urid ipules maḥend ad yemmneɣ aked tcuyuɛit niɣ maḥend ad ijahed x tmeslemt, niɣ maḥend ad yemɛutrus aked Fransa. Netta ipules ḥuma ad yerzu x uleqquz n weɣrum, ad yeɛteq tawacunt-nnes zi laẓ  ineqqen. Amen nettaf deg yezli-ya i yessawalen x manayenni nican:

« A tamɣart n upulis terẓa fud di tasa
Teqqaz iyarni di lḥewḍ n baṭaṭa »

Deg webrid d wenni s yexf nnes, ttzawar temɣart wenni ɣer yella imendi maca yettagi ad as yerḌel cwayt zeg-s maḥend ad t-tessur aked iyarni ineḥḥaren di tmijja xmi t ttegg°en weḥḥd-s tteggen zeg-s aɣrum:

 « Wellah ma a dak-semḥeɣ aya bab n imendi
Tmijja-inu tḥarc, yesḥarc-itt iyarni”

Ta d ijjen tidet wer din telli tidet awaren-as. Merra tessen aqqa timɣarin n yinni ipulsen ttuɣa xebbcent di tmurt rezzunt x iyarni ḥuma ad sseccent tarwa-nsent. Waxxa nessen aqqa iyarni-ya ineqq, ujar xmi wer ittnenni mliḥ.

D manaya i nnan waṭṭas n yergazen d temɣarin zeg yinni yeqqimen ɛad ddren di Arif, nnan aqqa iyarn-ya aṭṭas i zeg-s yemmuten; Imeẓẓyanen d imeqqranen, zeg yinni wer yessinen a t-ssenwen. Ɛad llant aṭṭas n temɣarin tteqqnent tlalit n tarwa-nsent ɣer usegg°as n iyarni (Ɛam n iyarni).

S uya, mayemmi ɣa teqqim temɣart n wenni ipulsen teqqaz di tmurt tettegg ixendaq ḥuma ad terzu x iyarni, mli wer ttuɣa yelli laẓ ineqq kter zi min ineqq umenɣi?!

A nẓer deg yezli i dd-yusin mamek traja temɣart n upulis aɛqab n wergaz-nnes ḥadar a kid-s dd-yawi ca n min ɣa ccen tarwa-nsen. Xmi ɣer-sen dd-ɣa yas, ad yeqqim ineṭṭu s lefraḥet n min dasen-dd-yiwi. Xmi t-ɣa tesseqsa temɣart-nnes x mayemmi ineṭṭu s lefraḥet, a t-taf yiwi-dd akid-s kilu n ddra yecca-t merra ukuz, wer deg-s yejji mɣar aqcur:

 “ Igeɛɛed-dd upulis, igeɛɛed-dd ineṭṭu
Yiwi-dd kilu n ddra yecci-t ufarṭṭu”.

Amen wḍan ifadden i temɣarin s min dd-iwyen yergazen-nsent, amen wer ssinen min dd-iwyen. Amenni i wḍan ifadden ula i ca n ipulisen i ifetnen zi beddu aked tuɛɛefna n min dd-kid-sen ksin.

Deg yezli i dd-yusin, nettaf ijjen upulis yeksi-dd akid-s kilu n ddra d kilu n unexxal, maca wer ɣer-s min ɣa yegg mɣar ad yajju axeyyeq:

“Igeɛɛed-d upulis, igeɛɛed-dd ixeyyeq
Yiwi-dd kilu n ddra d kilu n sarbaw ineqq”

Awaren i manaya, ɛad nzemmer a nessiwel a nini aqqa acrak n irifiyen deg umenɣi-ya ttuɣa-t d ajahed x tmeslemt? Niɣ aqqa adaf deg umenɣi-ya deg-s min isebḥen i tmurt-nsen? Amen nitni wer ufin ula d min ɣa sseccen i tarwa-nsen!. Wa d acrak di tmettant ḥuma wer ten-ttiwi temnawt amen bedden s laẓ i wer ireḥḥmen.

3- Asnumel n tetrajidit n umenɣi:

Izlan n tmaziɣt msuguren aked tetrajidit n wemseksi Aseppanyu zeg umezwar-nnes; S wesnumel d usefsi d wexzar ɣer min dd-yegguren. Zeggami yebda umenɣi-ya, ruḥen deg-s waṭṭas n imerrak, waxxa d yinni inejmen; qqimen d ineɛḍab ha wenni umi iruḥ ufus, ha wenni umi iruḥ uḍar… Wa d ijjen upulis yessekka-dd tabrat i yemma-s yettseqsa-tt mamek tella; Di llṭa d ijj, yeqqar-as aqqa iceṭṭ deg-s buḥbel awaren i umi das-iruḥ ufus d uḍar. Yeqqar yezli:

     “A ruḥ ssiweḍ-as sslam i yemma ma teddar
Ini-as yekks-as ufus ini-as yekks-as uḍar”

Wa d ijjen weklasi n ufaji x tyemmat ḥuma ad tessen aqqa mmi-s ɛad yedder, waxxa yekkes-as ufus d uḍar. D manaya i zi nettessen aqqa udrusen yenni inejmen zi tmettant deg wemseksi-ya. Yessawal yezli s yijjen weklasi n tezwart, aked temɣart n upulis i yessuḍsen ameẓẓuɣ, wer ɣer-s dd-yeḍri min ɣa yemsaren i wergaz-nnes xmi ɣa yecrek deg wemsiqḍi. Ittzawar itt yezli, yetticc-as-dd aneɣmis x rrimet n wergaz-nnes i yeqqimen deg wazzerg n wemsiqḍi ttesmim, wer yelli ula d wi tt-ɣa imeḍlen deg ucal:

   “ A tamɣart n upulis ccfa-am zi lemsemmen
Aqqa-m aryaz-nnem di Seppanya yesmem”

Deg webrid d wenni s yexf-nnes, yessawal yezli x temɣart i yelhan aked taẓyuḍi n uḍil, tettu aqqa argaz-nnes sebɛa n wussan d rrimet-nnes aqqa-tt ɛad sennej i ucal wer tufi wi tt-ɣa imeḍlen:

“A tamɣart n upulis, ma iɛejb-am uḍil
Aqqa-m argaz-nnem sebɛ-yyam wer yemḍil”

Yessawal ɛawed wezlawi s yiles n uɛsekri i yellan deg wazzerg n wemsiqḍi, x tamara i x-as ittekken waxxa deg wussan n lɛid, ujar xmi i dd-ittaweḍ lɛid ameqqran i di tettmun twacunt, ferrḥen deg-s:

“Aya lalla yemma mana lehna nehna
Aqqa lɛid ameqqran nesseɛd- t di fila”

Ittas-dd ɛawed wawal n tijjal ḥuma ad yerr x yezli-ya yeɛdun, itticc aneɣmis i iɛeskriyen i yesseɛdun lɛid ameqqran deg wazzerg n umenɣi, uca yeqqar-asen s yiles n tijjal aqqa ula d neccin wer nelli di ca, nɛeyyed x iselman n uburi awaren i umi mmuten yergazen-nneɣ x ifassen n irumeyyen:

 “ A ya lɛid ameqqran, i nɛeyyed s uburi
Umi mmuten lɛesker yenɣi-ten urumi”

Wa d ijjen uɛsekri nniḍen yessekka tabrat tennurẓem i merra tiwacunin n yinni ipulsen, yeqqar-asen aqqa inni inejmen wer mmuten merra ruḥen-asen ifassen d iḍaren deg wemseksi-nni aɛeffan:

  Ḥedd yekkes-as ufus, ḥedd yekkes-as uḍar
A Seppanya tileft, i daneɣ-yejjin d imeɛḍar”

Axmi i dd-ikessi nican tidet n wazzerg n wemsiqḍi, yesskan-aneɣ-tt-dd, wer telli am tenni ttuɣa daneɣ-sskanen inewwura n udiktatur Franku, zi lquyyad d lecyux i ttuɣa iɣekk°an tarwa n Arif ḥuma ad pulsen. Ttuɣa qqaren-asen ad traḥem ad tennḍem cwayt ajemmaḍ i waman, uca a dd-tdewlem. Ɛad din ca zeg yinni yeddaren wer ttun ijj zeg icekkamen n useppanyu umi ttuɣa yessawal di leswaq n Nnaḍur yeqqar: “Aqqa wenni ɣa ihezzen leklaṭa deg ufus-nnes, ad iɛebbeẓ x lqars ijjen twala waha, Seppanya tetticc-as 100 bessita”.

Wa i ttuɣa ittɛanen iwdan ɣer upules, man lqars xef yessawal? Walli znuzan tudert-nsen s 100 bessita? Uca cuf ad mmten niɣ ad qqimen d ineɛḌab min ɣa kken ddren, malla nejmen ɛad!.

Izlan zemmemen timsarin d yesmawen n yewdan i yudfen deg wemsiqḍi, uca qqimen d ineɛḍab min kkin ddren, ca zeg-sen aqqa-t ɛad ittsennad x leḥyuḍ zzat i tqunsult (consulat) n Seppanya di Nnaḍur deg yixf n kul ayur, ḥuma ad yeṭṭef ayenni n lmunet i das-jjin, d ttaman n ifassen d iḍaren i das-yettwakksen deg wemsiqḍi-ya. A nesḥess ɣer umedya n tidet-a iqesḥen deg yezli-ya i daneɣ-yesskanen mamek ttuɣa kessint bulanesyanat imeɛḍar imerrak di lmers n Mrič yettwaḥewwsen:

“Ṭṭumubin tazegg°aɣt i dd-yeksin imeɛḍar
Teksi-dd Lɛebbuḍi d Ɛmar AqeyḌar”

Nzemmar a nili wer tt-nettiwi di min yeɛna Lɛebbuḍi niɣ d Ɛmar aqeyḍar, maca min daneɣ-yecqan, aqqa ismawen-a d tidet n yewdan ttwassnen, ddren di tudert-nsen d imeɛḍar n yijjen umenɣi ttuɣa-t jer iseppunya. Nnehla ɛad ma nessiwel x yinni wer ibinen, d yinni yemmuten amen nenna qbel.

Deg yeyyar n wesnumel atrajidi, wer yettu yezli ḥuma ad yessiwel s yiles n igujilen d tijjal i yekkin deg iḍaren awaren i wemsiqḍi-ya. Ha tamɣart tettru imeṭṭawen am yenni tru “Lxansa” umi das-ruḥen tnayen n ayetma-s d nnhel-nnes deg umenɣi. Maca hayhay! Min dd-yiwyen imeṭṭawen-inn ɣer yina?!. Tin tru x ṭṭasilet-nnes i yemmuten deg ujahed x teqbilt d ddin, maca tamɣart tarifit tettru minzi aqbil-nnes ɣwan-ten, zzuɣɣaren-ten ɣer yijj-n umenɣi ttuɣa yigg°ej-iten.Yeqqar yezli:

“ɣezzu i dayi-tegga Seppanya di Malaɣa
Rami dayi-tiwi tarwa n ɛemmi marra »

D wa d amenɣi i tuɣa yellan jer iseppunya, maca yiwi tarwa n Arif ḥuma ad mmten niɣ ḥuma ad yedwel ca zeg-sen d ineɛḍab, malla mliḥ ɛad !.

Ha ijjt nniḍen tettru x ccwarti-nnes amcum, umi dd-tusa tmessi n wemsiqḍi tiwi tamnawt i wergaz-nnes niɣ i llif-nnes. Ad tessird ifassen-nnes zi tudert xmi ɣa yeẓwa ajemmaḍ-in:

 «  Aya lalla yemma, mayemmi sseɛd-inu
Ɛisa aqqa yugur, mayemmi tudert-inu ? »

Ɛisa d ijjen yisem nettessen aqqa d argaz niɣ d llif n ca n yijjt, minzi udrusent twalatin di nettaf tamɣart tarifit tettidar-dd wenni i xef dd-teqqar izli s yisem. Maca min daneɣ-yecqan da, aqqa Ɛisa deg yezli-ya d llif n tudert, lexxu d yimal.

Nettaf taqsuḥi n umenɣi-ya d ijjen wudem zeg wudmawen n tetrajidit-a, minzi inni yeggin izlan-a ttuɣa ssnen jjehd n yinni dd-ittasen aked uɣezdis-a niɣ aked uɣezdis-in (inni dd-ittasen aked yegdudanen, niɣ inni dd-ittasen aked tdiktaturit n Franku). Zi manaya ; nettaf min yenna yezli x lebraqi i ttuɣa dd-ittweṭṭan x iɛeskriyen n yina d yinin :

«  Lburqi n zzaj di Seppanya iheddem
Min yiwi d arumi, min yiwi d ameslem.”

Mamek ttuɣa ssnen yinni i dd-isaqaren izli-ya lesnaḥ ittwasxedmen deg wemsiqḍi-ya aɛeffan, ttuɣa ssnen ɛawed aqqa d tanazit tahiṭlirit i ttuɣa yellan awarn-as, umi ttuɣa teswiza aked tefrankawit (Franku). S uya, yus-dd yezli maḥend ad izawar ilimaniyen, minzi d nitni i ibedden aked umussu afrankawi, amussu-ya i yumren x weslaẓi n irifiyen, iɛan zeg-sen s uɣil ɣer wazzerg n wemquṭṭes, s weslaẓi-nsen, niɣ s usigg°ed-nsen di ca n twalatin nniḍen:

“Aliman aliman, a mmi-s n tfunasin
D cekk i daneɣ-yejjin, nessudum tizeyyatin”

Min yesskanen nican manaya; netta d min ttuɣa yellan di llṭa n umenɣi-nni zi leḥwayej n uliman i ttuɣa yellan di leswaq n Arif, zeg-sent ssukar azegg°aɣ i ttuɣa dd-ittɛan Uliman ɣer leswaq n ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk. Ɛad llan yinni i di iceṭṭ buḥbel, i ttuɣa yeddren di llṭa n umenɣi-nni, wer ttun ssukar-nni azegg°aɣ i ttuɣa yeggin am llajur. S uya, izli yessiwel s ugarnez d uzillez di llṭa d ijj x imettanen n yegdudanen. Yenna x ssekkar-a belli netta d iẓmi (lɛasir) n idammen-nsen:

“Ssekkar azegg°aɣ, idammen n arruxu
Iiɛan-it-idd Uliman i muru a t-isu.”

Nettaf ɛawed izli yessawal aked iɛeskriyen n Uliman s ugarnez, yeqqar-asen maḥend ad ssurfen ɣer zzat deg wazzerg n umenɣi, niɣ aqqa azlawi zi mant-nnes ad yehwa a icark deg umenɣi. Minzi igdudanen (izegg°aɣen) xsen ad ḥekmen di tmurt-nsen nnehla ma a kid-sen adfen iberraniyen. Yeqqar yezli:

“Sug-dd ay Aliman niɣ ad sugeɣ nnit
Arruxu bu ucenkuk yexs ad yeḥkem nnit”

Xmi ɣa yeften wezlawi aked ɣezzu-nni ittemsaren, xmi ittwala aberru n tarwa n Arif i tettawi temnawt, yessawal aked temɣarin d tyemmatin ittsebbar-itent x yenni i deg-s iruḥen umi udfen deg yijjen wemsinɣi amenni waha amen wer ɣer-sen deg-s walu:

“Byes abyas-nnem, ɛedl-as aẓeyyar
Apulis n Madrid wellah ɛemru yeḍhar”.

Maca yexs ad ifaja cwayt x tebriɣin i yettrajan aɛqab n iḥudriyen n ddcar, ujar tinni i umi yugur unexḍab niɣ d llif ɣer umenɣi ḥuma a dd-yedwel s wagla-nnes, ad yaf minzi ɣa yemlec d min ɣa yewc i terbat i yexs a tt-yawi. Yeqqar-asent wezlawi:

      “A tibriɣin-nneɣ, wer qeṭṭɛent bu layas
Tus-dd ijjen tebrat zi Seppanya labas”

Maca deɣya uca tamɣart a tessen aneɣmis i dd-yusin x ineɛḍab i dd-irewwḥen ɣer teqbilt, xmi ɣa inin aqqa inniḍen qeɛ mmuten, wer dd-yedwil ula d ijj zeg-sen. Merra inni iruḥen wer zey-sen dd-dwilen ɣir ineɛḍab i yeqqimen ad ṭṭfen tiɣemmura di tudrin-nsen:

“Aɣarrabu iqelleɛ faryaṭa taressa
Aya lalla yemma nnumru fursa yeqḍa[17]

4- Taxzart n temɣart ɣer wenni ipulsen deg wemsiqḍi n iseppunya:

Umi tedwel tettwassen tmenhat n yenni yeẓwan maḥend ad cerken deg wemseksi-ya, umi dewlen yewdan ttwalan jer tiṭṭawin-nsen timɣarin yujjlen, xenni dewlent terbatin ttagint ad awyent irgazen-nni ipulsen waxxa ɣa ilin ḥekkmen, minzi wer nejjmen zi temnawt min ɣa kken yarḍen ɛad arruḍ-nni n lɛesker.

A nsel i yezli-ya i dd-yusin x yiles n tneybut tarifit:

“Wer ttiwyeɣ apulis waxxa ɣa yili d nnwar
Waxxa ɣa yili iḥekkem zi Mrič ar Nnaḍur”

Tirbatin ttuɣa ssnent aqqa wenni ipulsen tettunnuḍ x-as tmettant, a t-tawi a t-tawi, min ɣa yekk deg wazzerg n umenɣi wer zeg-s inejjem. Waxxa tura x-as ad yenjem, maca wer inejjem ca zi zzelḍ i t-ɣa iḍefren. Minzi ssnent belli lmunet i das-ɣa jjen isppunya wer t-ttqeddi mɣar netta weḥd-s, mani ɛad a zeg-s yeksi tarwa-nnes. S uya, tenna x-as terbat deg yezli aqqa lmunet-nnes wer teɛdu lqimet n tbuyut ibeṭṭa-tt x tnayen:

“Wer ttiwyeɣ apulis waxxa i dayi-ɣa yewzen
Tbuyut n weɣrum, ibeṭṭa-tt x wezgen”

Izemmer ad yekker ca n yijj a daneɣ-yini aqqa tarbat-a i daneɣ-yennan izli, manis das-dd-yekka manaya? Tamrarut x useqsi-ya d ta: Maɣar tarbat-a wer ɣer-s ca n yijj zi twacunt ipules, niɣ tzemmer ad tili d yelli-s n ca n yijjen zeg yinni ipulsen, awaren i umi teẓra yemma-s mecḥal tekka tettraja argaz a dd-yedwel, ɣer uneggaru wer dd-yedwil! Axmi araji-ya ttuɣa ittɛawad tanfust n tmedditin n “Banilut” tamɣart-nni tasebḥant n yijjen ubeḥri yeffeɣ zi taddart aṭṭas zeggami, uca d wenni d abrid-nnes. Ad yili ttuɣa tettesla i yemma-s ɛawed xmi ttuɣa tettraḥ ad teḥḥarwec, uca teqqar izlan, niɣ xmi ttuɣa tɛeddel aɣimi ɣer tsirt n ufus uca tettawi-dd izlan amen kid-s dd-tehnuccaren imeṭṭawen, uca ad tini:

“Ɛamayen i kkiɣ x cceṭṭ n lebḥar
Ttrajiɣ apulis di lawsima a dd-iḍar”

Timɣarin n Arif merra tekka x-asent, waxxa izli tessawal deg-s temɣart x yexf-nnes waha.

Izli-ya yesskan-aneɣ tidet n min dd-yiwi umenɣi-ya i di mmuten iḥudriyen n Arif, wer qqimen mɣar iwessura d yenni wer izemmaren i ca, qqimen znuzan tahendit x tmewwa n yebriden:

   “ Seppanya tileft wig isebḥen tiwec-t
Tejja iwessura znuzan tahendect”

D wa d amsiqḍi n iseppunya jer-asen, mamek daneɣ-t-idd yeksi wezlawi amaziɣ Arifi.

Talusi:

  1. Nnumrawat i yettwawcen x cḥal yemmuten d cḥal iyezmen wer zemmaren a daneɣ-sqarben ɣer ɣezzu i yettwaggen di tarwa n Arif, amen daneɣ ɣar-s yessides yezli Arifi.
  2. Zi min dd-yusin deg yezlan; iseḥḥ-asen ubareqq i yenni ttuɣa daneɣ-yeqqaren aqqa tarwa n Arif ruḥen ɣer Seppanya maḥend ad jahden deg icuyuɛiyen niɣ inni i ttuɣa daneɣ-yeqqaren aqqa irifiyen pulsen aked uɣezdis n Franku minzi ttwalan deg upules nnfeɛ i tmurt-nneɣ d ddin-nneɣ.
  3. Waxxa qeɛɛ nnumrawat-nni i yewca Useppanyu aḥewwas x temsarin n umenɣi-ya, maca min yellan di tidet yeɛdu s waṭṭas min nnan nitni.
  4. Wer telli ca n tidet am ta i daneɣ-dd-iwyen yezlan x temsarin n umenɣi-ya aɛeffan.
  5. Ittban zi min uran imariren d ineɣmasen d yewdan n ddin d isertanen; inni i ttuɣa irebbun tixuncay i umussu adiktatur n Franku, belli aqqa aɛqab-nneɣ ɣer yexf-nneɣ d wayda-nneɣ (patrimoine), zeg-s i ɣa nsegged timsarin n umezruy a tent-nessers x tidet xmi ɣa nezzelz ixarriqen n min x-asent nnan.
  6. Tidet i dd-yiwi yezli x umenɣi-ya, izemmer a tt-idd-yawi ula x temsarin nniḍen i yessen Lmerruk. Wer nzemmer a naweḍ ɣer tidet i yeffaren ɣir s weɛqab ɣer weyda i yufsen s wektay d twengimin n wegdud, i yeccuren s waṭṭas n tidet wer tettwassen.


Amegrad-a ; azwel nnes s taɛrabt : « مشاركة أبناء الريف في الحرب الأهلية الإسبانية(1936 – 1939) من خلال الشعر الأمازيغي بالريف », icrek zeg-s uduktur Musṭafa Lɣadiri deg yijjen tinawt asentel-nnes : « Aseqsi n tmaziɣt » di tɣiwant n tseklatin di Wejda, ass n 3 Mars 2000. Awaren-as yettwafser deg weɣmis n « Tawiza » uṭṭun 37, ayur n may 2000.

[1] Aṭṭas n terzutin i yettwaggen x usentel n tuntimt n usefru, a nini ca zeg-sent, s umata tinni titrarin:

  • ملاحظات حول كتابة التاريخ، الشعر و التاريخ، ذ. نوري حمودي القيسي، مجلة المورد العراقية، مجلد 8، عدد 1. ص: 33 – 45، سنة 1979م. بغداد.
  • الشعر وثيقة تاريخية تغني أحداثه وتحقق وقائعه، نوري حمودي القيسي، نفس المجلة، مجلد 15، عدد 3، ص.ص: 85 – 94. سنة 1986م.
  • القيمة الوثائقية للنص الشعري من خلال شعر الوزير بن الخطيب، ذ.جمعة شيخة، مجلة كلية الآداب بتطوان، عدد 2، ص.ص: 291 – 324، سنة 1408 هـ/ 1987م. تطوان.
  • القيمة الوثائقية لديوان عبد الكريم القيسي، الكاتب نفسه، مجلة حوليات الجامعة التونسية، عدد 27، ص.ص: 119 – 132. سنة 1988. تونس…
  • الشعر الأندلسي في عصر الطوائف، هنري بيريس، تعريب: ذ. الطاهر أحمد مكي. دار المعارف 1988. ط 1 القاهرة.
  • الفتن و الحروب وأثرها في الشعر الأندلسي (من سقوط الخلافة ق5 هـ/11م إلى سقوط غرناطة 9هـ/15م) ذ جمعة شيخة (3أجزاء)، المطبعة المغاربية للطباعة و النشر، تونس 1994 – 1997م.

[2] Yegga umerzu bubker buhadi ijjen terzut n udiplum n tɣuriwin timattayin, azwel nnes: “Lmerruk d umenɣi aɣerman n Spanya”, tettwanaqec ass n 13 cutembir 1989 di tɣiwant n tsekla di arrbaṭ.

[3] Apules: ttuɣa qqaren t irifeyyen i wadaf di lɛesker n Franku. Wenni ɣa iraḥen ɣer lɛesker, ttuɣa qqaren-as iruḥ ad ipules. (aturejman).

[4]   « المغرب و الحرب الأهلية الإسبانية »، بوبكر بوهادي، رسالة دبلوم الدراسات العليا، نوقشت بتاريخ: 13 شتنبر 1989 بكلية الآداب بالرباط. ص.ص: 70 – 80.

[5] Tiwciwin-a niwi-tent-idd zeg uneqqis (rapport) n tmurayt tamatut tanamurt (Parquet général) di ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk, i yettwafesren ass n 28/04/1940. Yus-dd manaya ɛawed deg udlis : «La actitud de los moros ante al alzamiento Marruecos 1936 Espana. 1997 ed. Algazara. Malaga ». Aturjem ɣer taɛrabt n Lɛeyyaci abu ccita, taxrazt 38. Aɣmis n lɛalam, uṭṭun 16/08/1999. Wenni iḍeffren ɛawed isagmen (Sources) iɛsekriyen n Spanya, ad yaf nnumrawat-a kul twala mamek i dd-ttasen (Xzar amegrad : “El factor Marruecos en la Guerra civil espanola: una propuesta de investigacion” yura-t umari: Miguel Campo Rizo. Yettwafser di tesɣunt: hespress tamuda , uṭṭun 36 , tasna: 205 – 239, timefsarin n tɣiwant n tsekla di Arrbaṭ, 1998.

[6] iwaÏaneyyen, yeqseḌ zzaysen iɛeskreyyen isbbunya i tuɣa aked umussu n Franku.

[7] Ijumhureyyen niɣ izegÅaɣen (Rɛjɛs), inni tuɣa yellan mgal i Franku.

[8] Aɣmis n « Al ḥurriyya » d yeffɣen zi tiÏÏawin , uÏÏun n : 02/04/1939.

[9] Aɣmis n « Al waḥda almaɣribeyya », uÏÏun n : 08/03/1939.

[10] Migel Martin : El cɛlɛnialismɛ Esḥañɛl en Marruecɛs (1850-1956), ترجمة عبد العزيز الوديي، منشورات التل. ص85. الرباط 1988

[11] La verité sur les francsmaẓons au maroc. « Le Journal » N° 53, du 23/01/1999. Ḥ :10-11.

[12] Juan Beygbeder Atienza, ttuɣa-t zeg yewdan imcumen i ttuɣa aked udiktatur Franku di ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk, yeffeɣ-dd zi tkadimit n lɛesker aseggas n 1915, deg useggas d ijj, ileḥḥeg-dd ɣer temdint n Tiṭṭawin umi tḥewwes Seppanya ẓelmeḍ n Lmerruk. Din yelmed ddarija d taɛrabt taklasikit. Yedwel d ijj zeg wamun amassan n imerrak i yettwaggen di Tiṭṭawin ass n 27/12/1916.

Deg useggas d ijj, yuli d akumandar, arami d 1936 ; awaren i umi yeɣḍel Franku tagdudant tasermunt n Seppanya yegga-t Franku x tmurayt n tɣawsiwin tinamurin di temdint n Tiṭṭawin. Yegga tizemmar d timeqqranin ḥuma ad yejj irifiyen ad adfen s waṭṭas aked iɛsekriyen n Franku. Di 9 zi tɣuccet 1939, yedwel d lewzir n tɣawsiwin n berra di Seppanya. Yemmut ass n 6 yunyu 1957.

 [13] الرحلة المكية للفقيه أحمد الرهوني كتبها سنة 1937، منشورات معهد الجنرال فرانكو بتطوان. المطبعة الليبرالية سنة 1941. ص:213

[14] Miguel Martin, El colonialismo español en Marruecɛs (1850-1956) Ruido Iberico. Paris 1973. ḥ :189. Nettaf ɛawed awal n Franku yus-dd deg udlis n lefqih Rrhuni ; amuddu amekki tasna : 221

[15]  الرحلة المعينية للشيخ ماء العينين بن العتيق – كتاب مربيه ربه خلال هذه الرحلة. ص: 93-102. تحقيق الأستاذ محمد الظريف، منشورات مؤسسة الشيخ مربيه ربه لإحياء التراث الثقافي.

Nzemmar ad nedwel ɛawed ɣer : El fator Marruecos en la Guerra civil Espanola op cit  ḥ:216-218. Idlisen-a nzemmar a deg-sen naf marra ismawen n yinni yessek Franku ad raḥen ad ḥijjen

 [16]  المغرب و الحرب الاهلية الإسبانية، رسالة دبلوم الدراسات العليا ، بوبكر بوهادي، 1989، كلية الآداب بالرباط. ص: 85.

  • Xzar adelis n Muḥemmed ben ɛezzuz , « la actitud de lɛs moros ante al alzamiento marruecos 1936 Espana. 1997 ed. Algazara. Malaga ».

[17] Nnumru fursa : « Fuerzas armadas ». ttuɣa qqaren-t i nnumrawat n iɛeskriyen. Asali n nnumrawat yeqqar belli iɛeskriyen merra mmuten deg umenɣi.

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