5 décembre , 2021

« Sebta » Tamdint Tafrikanit deg ifassen n Uruppa

Yura‑t: Ridouan Pakhrou

Lxezrat tajyugrafit d tadimuɣrafit xef Sebta

Sebta d tamdint tusi-d deg uɣezdis n  yeẓẓelmeḍ n wafrika, tettsajja xef lebḥar acemlal amelwasu, zzat i tmijja n jbeltir. Tebna xef weẓru am ict n tegzirt d tameqqrant,  deg ijen teɣmert zi « tesɣunt n idurar n Arrif » xef tmurt tiweḍ ɣer 19 Km², ddaren dag-s ktar zi 82000 n imezdaɣ, ttemsebḍan jar Imselmen, Imaziɣen, d Irumyyen d cwayt n Wudayen(45% ɣer-sen iẓuran d Imeɣrabiyen).

Tawllaft wiss 1 : araq ajyugrafi n sebta(s uzeggʷaɣ)


Tamdint n Sebta waxxa aqqa-tt di tmurt d Tafrikant. Ass-a tedwel d ijen tesga zi tesgiwin n tgeldant Taspanyut, ttuɣa-tt d azyen zi tmurt n Imaziɣen di Lmeɣrib. Zzat ma ad tt-iḥewwes Upurdqiz di lqern n 15.

Tawlaft tiss 1 : araq ajyugrafi n sebta (s uzeggʷaɣ)

Deg usggʷas n 1995, ad isinya aberlaman n Spaniya ḥuma Sebta ad teṭṭef utunumiya-nnes, ɣer-s ijen tutlayt d tunṣibt, i yellan d « tutlayt takastalant ». Sebta niɣ « sewta » mammec das-ttlaɣan imezdaɣ-nnes, ttetwaḥsab d icten zeg wattas n imucan yellan deg fus n uḥewwas Aspanyu. Zzag-s Mritc, d tegzirt n Bades, d Nnkur, d waṭṭas n tegzirin d timeẓẓyanin. Deg igmiren imaḍlanen, Sebta ttetadef di tmurt n « tmunt n Uruppa ». Maca Imeɣrabiyyen εad ttetrajan ad tenqar tfuct n usedwel d uslelli n temdint-a ɣer yella umezruy d Ameɣrabi. Maca melmi? war yessin ḥedd.

Tifawin xef umezruy n sebta

Di lqern wis sebεa qbel tlalit n sidna Ɛisa, ssersen ifiniqiyyen aẓru amezwaru n temdint n Sebta. Deg useggʷas n 319 qbel tlalit ad tewḍa temdint-a deg ufus n Karṭaj. Ttuɣa yeṭṭfen aṭṭas d imucan xef tma n wadday zi rebḥar amerwasu. Maca deg useggʷas n 200 qbel tlalit n Ɛisa. Ad tssers Kartaja lesneḥ ad tesgeεεed acenyal acemlal, awareni ma ad kkren imenɣan ibuniqiyen wiss sin (la 2 ème guerre Bunique) jar Kartaja d arruman. Senni ad tekkar tageldit Tamaziɣt Muritanya Taṭanjit, ɣa yesmunen Sebta ag tmurt n tgeldit-a. Arami d aseggʷas n 40 a xaf-s yeḥret uḥewwas Arrumani. Teqqim tettmuttuy jer iḥewwasen n berra, arami d εam n 709 ad tt-adfen yemselmen, ḥuma ad tsmunen kud cwayt aked wandalus ttuɣa ḥekkmen.

Maca rami terreẓ ddewla n l-amawiyyin s ssibbet n imenɣan jer igeldunen, ad tewḍa Sebta deg ufus n tarfiqet n Malaga, zzat ma ad tt-id-tesnufselen « Iburɣwatiyyen » yellan d ict n ddewla Tamaziɣt, temsebḍa aked weεraben n ccarq, awern-as ad ttadef Sebta di tmurt n imrabḍen d lmuwḥḥidin di lqern n 11 d 12.

Aseggʷas n 1415 ad tewḍa Sebta deg ifassen n uḥewwas aburdqiz, maca lami terreẓ purtugal s imenɣan zzag-sen amenɣi n « wadi lmaxazin » aked sseεdiyyin, Sepanya a ɣer-s dd-ttesmun tammurt n purtugal aseggʷas n 1580. Wami wḍen iεalawiyyen ad ḥekmen Lmeɣrib, ssnufslen-dd attas d imucan zeg ufus n uburddqiz, amecnaw Ṭanja, Lmeεmura, Leεrayc…maca ggaman ad snufslen Sebta, waxxa yssek uzedjid Smaεil lεeskar-nnes yeqqimen unuḍenn-as ujar zi 30 isggʷasen arami d εam n 1724. Waxxa d igranziyen yegga cwayt n tzemmar ḥuma ad yeṭṭef Sebta, maca wer yiwiḍ ɣer min yxes, zzay-s teqqim temdint-a ɣer Spanya ar ass-a.

Awaren ma teffeɣ Spanya zi tmurt n Lmuɣrib ttuɣa tḥewwes deg umzwaru n lqern n 20, teqqim teṭṭef Sebta d Mritc d cwayt n tegzirin zag-sent Tura, Bades, Nnkur, d tegzirin iycffaren. Waxxa d Lmeɣrib di tidet, wer yeggi bu tzemmar ḥuma ad ysnufsel timura-ya ixef yeqqar aqa ttwacarent-as, ujar wami ɣar-s amukris n Sseḥra, amukris-a yeqqimen d ijjen wemjar di timjja n Lmeɣrib aṭṭas n isggʷasen wer izemmar ad yini i Spaniya ffeɣ zi tmurt-nneɣ. Waxxa d ikabaren imeɣrabyen war ssidifen tamsrayt-a n Sebta d Mritc di tawuri-nsen. Waxxa d tribizyun wer nttesli yessawal ḥedd xef tɣawsa-ya ḥama yemsar ca n wemxumbel jer tinbaḍin n Lmeɣrib d Spaniya.

Mammec xzzaren imezdaɣ n zelmeḍ (ccamal) ɣer Sebta ?

Tiɣuriwin yeqqnen ɣer uzmmem n imezdaɣ di Sebta, qqarent belli 45% n imezdaɣ-nnes ɣer-sen iẓuran d imeɣrabiyen, mammec yiweḍ aṭṭas zzag-sen ad ṭṭfen imucan s rhimmet-nsen, deg iger n tsebbabt d tademsa, tasertit, tadelsa, pulisiya, d lexdayem nniḍen. Mamec bnan ict tuqqent tulleɣ jar imezdaɣ n Sebta, εawd wexxa d imezdaɣ n yzzelmd n lmeɣrib yudsen Sebta, ɣer-sen ijn wemṣawaḍ d asebḥan aked Sebta, day-s aṭṭas n rfaydet, ujar di min yeqqnen ɣer usbbeb d lexdaym. Aṭṭas d imeɣrabyyen zeg iḥudryyen d ttemɣarin ttadfen kur ass ɣer Sebta ḥuma ad xedmen, niɣ ad ssufɣen timsrayin ad zzenzen, niɣ ad sewwqen ɣer tudrin, ktar min yeqqnen ɣer macca d warruḍ d tmerayin uɣasṭar

Imezdaɣ n kastyixxu d arrinkun, teddaren ag Sebta, di reswaq-nsen tɣaṣtaren ɣer min yellan n Sebta. Maca deg isggʷasn-a inggura wer yeqqim ca wadaf ɣer Sebta d usebbeb mamc tekka zzat, ujar wami yedduqqez lehlac n kuruna. Min yejjin lmeɣrib ad yqqen tawwurt n Sebta, war yeqqim ittadf ɣers ula d yejjen. Deg umaḍal ammen ykmer imezdaɣ n temdinin tinegmirin (villes frontières) teddarent s kuntrabandu, ujar tammurt-a n fnideq d lmdiq wer day-s bu lexdayem, sbra min yeqqnen ɣer trabandu, d cwayt n turist deg unebdu.

Min yeεna umxubel jer Spanya d Lmeɣrib ?

Deg ussan-a imeggura, deg wakud mani ttuɣa yewdan n tesga-ya ttetrajan ad ttetwarẓem tewwurt n Sebta, ad dwlent tmesrayin ɣer wemcan-nsent, yekkar ijen wmxarwaḍ jar Lmexzen n Lmeɣrib d Spanya, wami d-yerra Lmeɣrib aneɣmis, n wadaf umeqqran n pulisariyu ɣer Spanya, zzag-s wer das-yeεjib rḥar, zzay-s ad yssenta ucarri d umenɣi  s wawal di tribizyun jar imeqqranen n tmura-ya.

Tawllaft wiss 2 : iḥudriyyen imeɣrabiyyen zeg yewdan yudfen sebta

Deg wakud d ameẓẓyan, ywweḍ ad yadef ɣer Sebta ktar zi 8000 n n yewdan dag-sen iḥudriyyen d ttemɣarin d  iḥenjaren imeẓẓyanen, zi tracca n yegmirn jer kastyixxu d Sebta zeg uɣezdis n yennurẓmen xef tma n lebḥer, niɣ udfen s wftaḥ zi lbḥer n kastyixxu.  Isppunya twalan deg usurif-a ict tmesrayt yegg-it lmeɣrib s nεemmada. Deg ict tamrriwt xef usnewju n Spanya i wmeqqran n pulisariyu « Brahim ɣali » yedjan d ijen weεdaw n ucal ameɣrabi.

Manaya marra, ad yejj tanbaḍt n lmeɣrib, ad tssek ict tiyyara ḥuma ad dd-trewweḥ « ssafira » nnes di madrid, mammec tessuyur Spanya ssafira-nnes zi arbat.

Zeg uɣezdis nniḍen, kkren-d attas d imeɣrabiyyen di sucyalmidia ad ttren s usnufsel n tmdint n Sebta d Mritc zeg ufus ispunya, mani fesren yejj ulaɣi, yeqqar anqḍeε n tamsɣiwt n leḥwayj d tyafutin (produits) n Spanya.

Amaynu

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