25 septembre , 2021

Carelton Coon.. Amarikani-nni iḥesben ixef-nnes d Arifi s idammen d wul

"yebda aɣamer-nnes di girra n Arrif, ifekker ad iwwet aqerṭas aked Irifiyen, idwel-dd ɛawed ɣer Arrif bac ad isnekker imezdaɣ kunṭra i Franku. Ttuɣa-t d aselmad i David Hart deg iseggusa n xemsin. D netta i t-iɛernen maḥend ad iɣer Arrif. Ikka dduniyt tekmel, maca netta zi lebda yettwala ixef-nnes d Arifi. Min iɛna Carelton Coon ?"

Beddu-nnes ttuɣa-t di tesdawit n Harvard mani ila irezzu s minzi mma maḥend ad yaweḍ ɣer imukan mani wer issin; ad iɣamer. S uya, lebda ila iḥeṭṭar di tinawin n Antruplujiya n uselmad-nnes Earnest Hooton; i ttuɣa yettɛawaden tiḥuja x wagduden Ifrikanen i itteɛjiben i Coon qbala. Ula kṭer tiḥuja-nni i yettɛawad x wegdud Arifi di Tmazɣa.

Irifiyen-nni i ɣer yella «tifras d Tiskundinaviyin i iffuden idammen ». Hooton ttuɣa icc-itt x wegdud Agwanci i yellan di tegzirin Tiknariyin. Maca Hooton ila wer issin ca Arrif mliḥ, nettaf wami i das-yura tamessizwarut i Coon i wungal-nnes « aksum ufunas n lexla » iqqim irẓem aqemmum mamec ggin wer nɣin Irifiyen Coon, ad as-ṭṭfen tamɣart-nnes. Coon iggur ad issen belli aṭṭas n tmeslayin i yettwannan x Irifiyen ila maci d tidet. Ttuɣa rennin dag-sent waha, dag-sen aṭṭas n iklicciyen x Arrif.

Yus-d ɣer Arrif bac ad ibedd aked Irifiyen kunṭra i Ifransisen d Ispuniya

Coon, i ttuɣa yellan ɛad d ameḥḍar yekkes aked ixef-nnes maḥend ad iraḥ ɣer Arrif i twalat tamezwarut deg useggas n 1924. Maca ticli-nnes ɣer Arrif i dd-yebdan zi Casablanca x Fas tbedd ɣer Taza. Minzi Arrif ttuɣa ittessen xenni ijjen umenɣi aked iḥewwasen.

Coon, netta zeg ijjen lwacun d tameqqrant deg Umarikan, lwacun-nni i ibedden deg wudem n uḥewwas Abriṭani. S uya, netta ttuɣa ittamen s izalen (valeurs) n weɣnas d tlelli zeg uḥewwas. S uya, ttuɣa ittfekker ad ibedd aked Irifiyen kunṭra i Ifransisen d Ispuniya. Maca ticli-nnes ɣer Arrif tuffu-dd di Merrakec. Ittɛawad mamec irwel zeg Iɛisawiyen n Leḥmadca minzi ufin-t igga-asen ca n Ifuṭuten di Jameɛ Lfna.

Coon d temɣart-nnes deg Ayt Ɛemmart

Di ticli-nnes tis tnayen ɣer Arrif i dd-yegga deg useggas n 1925, tebda-dd zi Ṭanja. Dinni i ɣa yaf ca n Irifiyen i dd-irewlen zi tmessi n umseksi aked Ispunya niɣ inni i dd-yusin maḥend ad sgenfan ixef-nnsen zeg iyezzimen n girra.

Coon ila itterra taynit i tefras d twessaf n wagduden am netta am Earnest Hooton. Manaya ttuɣa ittadef di umi neqqar Tanṭrupulujit Tafizikt (Physical Anthropology). Uca ibda ikessi ifuṭuten i iɣembab n ca n Irifiyen i dd-yusin ɣer Ṭanja d iḍliben, ibda iɛebbar-iten, iqqar min isfarrazen wudmawen-nnsen.

Maca waxxa amenni wer iriḥ ca ɣer Arrif minzi ttuɣa yehlek deg useggas-nni. Deg useggas-nni awern-as, di 1926, yewya Marry Goodale i ttuɣa yellan d yelli-s n ijjen lwacun yettwassnen s umenɣi-nnsen kunṭra i Ihindawiyen. Ttuɣa-tt d ijjen temɣart i yettexsen aɣamar la d nettat, ttuɣa la d nettat ɣer-s ɛicrin iseggusa, ma Coon ila ɣer-s netta tnayen uɛecrin iseggusa. Yalleh melken, ruḥen awern-as nican ɣer Arrif, twalat-a tanita, iwweḍ Coon ɣer Arrif zegga tkemmel girra d Mulay Muḥend issers lesnaḥ-nnes.

Adaf amezwaru, ttuɣa xsen ad t-nɣen

Ayur-nni n ttament wer t-ttuɣi ca nurmal, ila yeccur s lxaṭar i yiɛic netta aked Temɣart-nnes. Coon ittɛawad x ussan-nnes imezwura mani imselqa aked ca n Irifiyen zi Tiddas, deg Igzennayen, i dd-yusin ṭṭerf i Buzineb. Sseqsan-t x manis netta, umi wer t-ufin maci d Afransis niɣ d Aspanyu, bdan ttcacan zzag-s. Wer ssinen ma netta zi « Lmalikan » niɣ zi « Lamalakat ».

Amec yettɛawad Coon x manaya, waxxa netta yeɣra x-asen « lḥemdu » zegga i das-tt-yenna ca n ijjen, maca yuca axmi ila xsen a x-as nɛedden, zegga i das-tt-yenna ca n ijjen. Maca ijjen qqaren-as Muḥemmed Lmnebbhi, zeg Ayt Lmumen, zeg Iharucen yus-d ittar x-as laman. Xenni, iqqar Coon, belli manaya yejja ad tili ijjen tɣuni jar Ayt Lmumen d Ayt Coon, ittsemma netta d temɣart-nnes.

Lmnebbhi-nni ttuɣa yemneɣ aked Ifransisen di girra tamaḍlant tamezwarut, uca yudef aked Mulay Muḥend mani ila yella d lqayed n miyya. Awerni umenɣi-nni, idwel Lmnebbhi d ameddukel i yudsen n Coon, ittraḥ akid-s mani mma, ittɛawan-it ɣer usturjem, issawal x-as aked imezdaɣ.

Izdeɣ Coon deg Iharcuen, ar aseggas n 1928, deg useggas-a i di dd ɣa awi Ph.D zi Harvard. Tɣuri-ya i yegga, issufeɣ-dd zzag-s ijj n udlis d ameqqran qqaren-as « Tribes of the Rif 1931s ». Tɣuri-ya tanita tessiwel x waṭṭas n iɣezdisen zi tudert n Irifiyen, zzag-sen iɣezdisen idelsanen, leɛwayed, tinamitin d tsentutin tinamunin.

Maca aked manaya, tɣuri-nni ila dag-s aɣezdis Amurfuluji i ttuɣa yecqan Coon di merra isafaren-nnes i yegga deg umaḍal. Nettaf-it yegga ijjen uzgen iccur s ifuṭuten i wudmawen zi tqebbal n Arrif merra d imukan nniḍen zi Lmeɣrib maḥend a ten-iɣer, a ten-ismqudda.

Adlis n Coon min xef iksi Ph.D nnes

Coon, yewwi akid-s Lmnebhi umi yedwel ɣer Umarikan, ameggaru-ya i iɛawnen Coon deg wejmaɛ d usettef n tmetta tamassant (matière scientifique) min xef ixdem netta. Coon, yeqqar, mli wer yelli d Lmnebdi, a tili manaya ɛemmers ad iẓer tfawt n tudert. Lmnebbhi amec i x-as iqqar coon, ttuɣa-t d « aɛwin di trezzut d aturjman d aɛessas x-as, d adiplumasi ittawi-dd ixef-nnes ».

Zegga i yeksi Ph.D, iḍbeɛ adlis-nni x Arrif, isiɣa Coon, ittxes ad issen tussniwin-nniḍen, iqqar x-asent, d izumal irkyulujiyen-nnsent. Yeɣra x Ikurdiyen, Aɛraben n tegzirt d Ccam, Ifarisiyen, Ifɣaniyen, Albaniyen d Ityupiyen. Mamec igga ca n tmeɣziwin di ca n yefran di Ṭanja, Ssiralyun, Iran d yeffus n Arjuntin. Ar lexxu qa din ca n yexsan d imassen i yufa Coon deg ijjen usalay (musée) di Harvard. Zzag-sen ula inni i yufa di Taza, zegga ttuɣa issɣara di Harvard.

Coon yus-d ɣer Arrif kunṭra i Franku

Umi tekker girra tamaḍlant tis snat, Coon ttuɣa ixes ad igg fus-nnes la d netta di girra-ya s twacit-nnes d trezzutin-nnes. Uca iraḥ ɣer Tmazɣa d Arrif maḥend ad ixdem deg usira n lexdayem tistratijyin OSS.

Asira-ya i teṭṭef deg wemkan-nnes CIA. Yus-d netta ɣer Arrif, minzi Imarikaniyen ttuɣa dag-sen amnus n Franku maḥend wer yettriḥ Aked Hilter di girra. Uca Coon, ttuɣa ixes ad as-igg imxumbal i Franku di Arrif, xmi ɣa imsawaḍ aked imɣaren n Arrif, ad iḥarrec Irifiyen x Ispunya. Maca Franku netta wer yudif bu di girra, uca sbedden lxedmet n Coon. Zi lexdayem n Coon ɛawed di Tmazɣa ad iwwec i tnezbayt Tafransist i ttuɣa yellan kunṭra i Tnazit d lḥukuma n Vichy di Lezzayer lesnaḥ.

Muḥemmed Lmnebbhi ameddukel n Coon zeg Iharucen

Di tira-nnes ttuɣa yettamen s tzemmar-nnes i yegga di girra. Ila ittamen ila min ittegg amenni ittas-d kunṭra i tdiktaturit. Belli amenɣi-nni ttuɣa-t uɣil x-as maḥend ad nnufslen yegduden. S uya, Coon, awerni i umenɣi ttuɣa ittic ijjen taynit d tameqqrant i min umi ittsemma netta « afra amaḍlan » min xef itthudda Hitler.

Coon, ameddukel n David Hart

Immutti Coon ad isselmed di tesdawit n Pennsylvania dinni i yemsagar aked umeḥḍar-nnes David Montgomery Hart i yeksin zi Coon, timexsa-nnes maḥend ad iɣer Arrif. Tsiɣa tiddukla-nnes aṭṭas n iseggusa, mani Hart isnuju Coon di Arrif aṭṭas n twalatin.

Nzemmer a nini ila Coon ittwaḥsab d antrupuji d ansiklupidi ameggaru, minzi ttuɣa irezzu di tenṭrpulujit tadelsant, arkyulujiya, d Paleontology. Ɛawed yura di tsekla, di minumi nttsemma ungal Atnugraf. Ittsemma ungal-nni i yessawalen x tussniwin n wagduden d leɛwayed-nnsen. Coon, yettwaḥsab zeg inni i yudrusen i yuran ddegg-a n wungal. Tnayen n wungalen waha i yura Coon, ijjen d « Flesh of the Wild Ox, 1932 » d « The Riffian, 1933 ».

Ungal n « Arifi »

Coon: Nec d Arifi

Coon, ttuɣa yelseq aṭṭas ɣer Irifiyen, ijjen twalat yura belli netta ttuɣa izemmer ad yefhem awal n Irifiyen waxxa deg wussan-nnes imezwura di Arrif. Minzi leɛqel-nnes d leɛqel n Irifiyen xeddmen s ijjen tebridt. Yenna belli netta yeqqen ɣer Irifiyen kṭer zi ca n wagdud nniḍen igga x-as tiɣuriwin. Waxxa netta yura aṭṭas n idlisen, maca netta yeqqar ila inni i yura x Arrif ɛizzen x-as aṭṭas. « Min uriɣ x Arrif, wer nzemmer a t-nesmqudda ula aked ijjen lḥajet nniḍen uriɣ-t awern-as, minzi ila lliɣ d Arifi ».

Asagem: Muhemmed Ddawdi, Tifraz n Arrif, U, 43, 2009.

Amaynu

Yeqqen ɣer-s