22 mai , 2021

Kawésqar: Iles issawalen tmenya n yewdan waha deg umaḍal

Zeddɣen ayt bab n yiles n Kawésqar deg warxibil ameqqran n yeffus, mani wer ittif bnadem ḥa isemmiḍen d inuẓar d waḍu.

Taseḍma-ya n iɛezzaben sɛeddan azgen ameqqran n wass-nnsen di tɣerruba, ayenni ittakk°aḍen ttbeḥḥiren jar tɣezratin n Penas d tizi n Magellan, leɣwabi tizegzawi i dasen-yunuḍen, aqqa-ten ḥa rezzun x bellemri, iqqzinen n waman d ijḍaḍ d tleɣwin bac ad ten-ccen.

Irgazen-nnsen ttuɣa gemmren x tmurt (gemmren ula d tɣaydin n wezɣar ittwassnen ɣer-sen dinni), mamec gemmren x lebḥer, mani timɣarin gerrwent ajɣul xminni fettḥent, sekkant x yilem-nnsent s ddhen n bellemri.

Ameknaw wagduden imezwura izedɣen tnayen n Tmirikaniyin ca n luluf iseggusa zi mani, Ayt Kawésqar ttuɣa ɣer-sen iles-nnsen weḥḥed-sen, ttwaḥerzen ɣer ṭṭef alahsab tajiygrafiyt-nnsen. Manaya i daneɣ-ittejjan a nefhem mayemmi ɣer-sen 32 n tebridin i zi zemmren ad inin « da ».

Maca aked lweqt, wami i d-usin iḥewwasen ɣer jjihet-a zi tmurt n Chili i ttuɣa yettwassnen s Patagoniya n uɣelluy, agdud-a yeẓra ijjen ubeddel d aɛeffan: Maci ḥa s minzi umi semḥen di tudert-nnsen n tɛezzabt – lexxu zeddɣen di Puerto Eden, ijjen ddcar d ameẓẓyan I yellan x yeffus n Penas – maca semḥen ula deg yiles-nnsen.

Alaḥsab asalay Acili ttuɣa zeddɣen Kawéskar da zi lebda, ttwassnen twalat tamezawrut aseggas n 1526 s tiṭṭ n Francisco José García Jofré de Loaysa. Tala: Internet Archive Book Images.

Yedwel welmad n Tespanyut d ijjen tmeslayt uɣil zzag-s, cwayt cwayt ar mani wwḍen ɣer lḥal min di llan lux: Ass-a yalleh tmenya n midden i yessawalen iles-nnsen n tyemmat.

Rebɛa zzag-sen d iwdan d imeqqranen. Tlata zzag-sen d ca n iwdan i d-ilulen deg iseggusa n 1960 – yina ittwaḥsaben d tasalt tameggarut i ttuɣa yessawalen iles-a zi temẓi-nnsen – d ijjen nniḍen, i wer yellin ca d agmam zi jjmaɛet-a, issawal-it: Oscar Aguilera.

Ameggaru-ya d amrezzu di tesnilest (Ethnolinguistique), ɣer-s 72 iseggusa, ittegg tizemmar bac ad yeḥḍa iles-a ca n xemsin iseggusa zi mani, d nettat ittzemmam amawal, mamec ittzemmam ula imsawalen n ayt bab n yiles-a wa.

Awern-as, ijjen wegmam-nniḍen maci zi jjmaɛet-a issitem ad yelmed tajerrumt la d netta: d tasmunt n arrayes Gabriel Boric, massa tamezwarut Irina Karamanos.

Tameqqrant tafiminist, temsawaḍ aked Aguilera, maḥend ad terni zi tmessna-nnes x yiles-a. Nettat tettwala belli Itciliyen ɣer-sen ijjen tɣuri d “taneqsit” aked wegduden imezwura, almad n umawal-nnsen d ijjen tebridt i zi nzemmer a ɣer-sen nades.

Maca minzi i yettwassen iles-a? min ɛnant tiwessaf-nnes? Manis d-kkin iẓuran-nnes?

D manaya min xef i d ɣa nerr.

Man iẓewran n yiles-a?

Imesnilsen d imerzzuten lebda ttexsen ad rren x ijjen useqsi: manis d-kkin ilsawen n wegduden, min iɛna aẓwar-nnes n tidett?

Tamɣart n Kawéskar di Puerto Eden. Tala: Oscar Aguilera.

Di lḥal n yiles n Kawésqar – am waṭṭas n yelsawen imezwura – tamrarut wert bin ca mliḥ.

Minzi d amezwaru netta d ijjen yiles “ittwaẓli” niɣ “wer imsettif ca”.

Manaya ixes ad yini belli wer yudif ca deg ijjen twacunt n yelsawen, ɛawed wer ɣer-s ca tɣuni aked ca n yiles yedder (Ameknaw Taspanyut, i d-iqqersen zi Tlatint, yettwaḥsab d iles d Arumani).

Umi netta d ijjen iles “ittwaẓli” xenni iqqseḥ maḥend a nessen manis d-kkin iẓuran n wawalen, tuska-nnes d tjerrumt-nnes.

Nettxemmem belli ayt Kawéskar zedɣen Patagonie n uɣelluy ca n 10.000 n useggas zi mani, zamul amezwaru ittwassnen n yiles-nnsen iban-d ḥa di 1688 d 1689, wami x-as d-issiwel amessebrid Afransis Jeane de la Guilbaudière.

Alaḥsab asalay Atcili n tẓuri, ttuɣa di lqern tseɛṭac, ila din ca n 4000 b midden i yessawalen iles-a.

Maca deg umeggaru n lqern-a, imezdaɣ i yessawalen iles-a hwan-d ar 500, zi senni 150 n yewdan deg useggas n 1920.

Ass-a nzemmer a neḥseb ca n 250 n ayt Kawéskar di jjihet n Magallanes, maca ssawalen ḥa ijjen yiles waha – ssawalen ḥa Taspanyut – wer das-ssinen ca i yiles n lejdud-nnsen.

Min ɛnant tiwessaf-nnes ?

 Di twessaf timurfulujiyin n Kawéskar yejj-itt ad yerwes di Teturkiyt, ittsemma yeɛlem “iwalen, tiwinas d twennitin” i nesturjum ḥa s ijjen wawal waha s teglinzit.

“Wer nzemmer a naf ca n wawal, i “the table” s taglinzit niɣ “mesa” s Tespanyut. Di Kawésqar, ɣer-neɣ ca n wawalen am “jerkiár-atǽl” i yellan d ijjen wemyag i yexsen ad yini ‘anhezzi n waraḥ as-d n lebḥer”. D aya i yenna Oscar Aguilera i BBC Mundo.

Waxxa din ijjen wemsawaḍ n ayt Kawésqar aked ikulunen, maca ttagin ad qeblen ireṭṭalen zi Tespanyut. Ammu, saqaren-d iwalen d jjdid bac ad ssiwlen x ca n iparaṭuten i ɛelmen am (Ttlibizyu niɣ Tliffu).

Ca n 200 Kawéskar ttiɛicen di Port Eden. Tala : Oscar Aguilera

Mamec i din ca n wawalen-nniḍen i d-immeksin zi Tespanyut maca ttwassidfen deg yiles n Kawésqar.

Ameknaw awal n “barco” i qqaren nitni d “Jemmase” niɣ “Wàrko”. “B” n tespanyut iṭṭef amkan-nnes “w”, minzi wer din bu asekkil n “b” di Kawésqar.

Zeg ijjen uɣezdis-nniḍen, din ijjen uɣezdis d adelsan, Alaḥsab Aguilera, “nemsebḍa ula s tebridt i zi nessawal”.

“Mala ayt Kawésqar wer ssinen ca min ixsen ad inin nican, wer t-qqaren ca. Sxeddamen lebda afadan (le conditionnel). Deg yiger adelsan, ttagin x ixarriqen d min wer illin bu d tidett. D manaya minzi txeddem jjmaɛet. Bu ixarriqen lebda sscanan ɣer-s s uḍaḍ”. Ammu i daneɣ-yenna.

Ɛawed, ayt Kawésqar, ɛemmers ad inin belli flan niɣ fertellan aqqa ilaɣan-asen-d zi Lundun. Mala wer ssinen mliḥ ila aqa aterras-nni ma zi Lundun niɣ lla (minzi wer t-tettwilin ca) uca ad inin “ad yili ilaɣa-ayi-d” zi Lundun.

Mayemmi iles-a ittwaḥsab di lxaṭar?

Minzi ḥa tmenya n midden i yessawalen iles-a, zeg yelsawen min xef ittwahudd anqaḍi zi Unesco.

“Amxumbel aqqa-t, ila midden wer ttwilin bu nnfeɛ deg yiles-a. Nitni ɣer-sen ad lemden Taspanyut niɣ Tanglinzit ḥsen” ammu yeqqar Aguilera.

Yenna belli umi Taspanyut teṭṭef amkan-nnes ameqqran jar imezdaɣ manaya ittɛqab ɣer tsebbabt i ten-issiwḍen ad jjen iles-nnsen ad qqimen ssawalen ḥa iles Aspanyu.

Aked manaya, yeqqar belli imezdaɣ ttacan belli ttwaferzen zeg imezdaɣ-nniḍen i dasen-d-yudsen am Ayt Chiloé (inni izeddɣen di tegzirt n Chiloé).

“Ayt Chiloé ttuɣa xezzren-d ɣer-sen s nnfaxet, ḍeḥḥken x-asen, x mamec i ssawalen iles-nnsen. S uya i yeggin wer ssiwilen iles-nnsen di berra, maca ḥa di taddart waha”. D manaya I yenna umessnaw-a.

Oscar Aguilera izeddeɣ ass-a di Punta Arenas aseggas 2015. Aqqa-t d aselmad di tesdawit n Magallanes. Tala : Oscar Aguilera.

Ddewla n Chiili waxxa amenni wer teggi walu bac ad teḥḍa iles-a. Ass-a, ilaɣiten ɣer usedder n yiles-a wer yekfi ca. Tamezgida n Puerto Eden, teslemmad Taspanyut waha.

“Qa din iwdan tteggen tizemmar bac ad lemden iles-a, maca wami wer ttsiɣin ca uca tteɛgizen, ɛawed, iles-a imsebḍa x tespanyut s waṭṭas zeg uɣezdis n tjerrumt-nnes, manaya irni isseqsiḥ zi tmeslayin”.Ammu i yenna Aguilera.   

Amaynu

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